Conflict of interest: Nothing to declare.
Strategies to manage retinoblastoma in developing countries†
Article first published online: 11 NOV 2010
Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Volume 56, Issue 3, pages 341–348, March 2011
How to Cite
Chantada, G. L., Qaddoumi, I., Canturk, S., Khetan, V., Ma, Z., Kimani, K., Yeniad, B., Sultan, I., Sitorus, R. S., Tacyildiz, N. and Abramson, D. H. (2011), Strategies to manage retinoblastoma in developing countries. Pediatr. Blood Cancer, 56: 341–348. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22843
- Issue published online: 10 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 11 NOV 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 AUG 2010
- Manuscript Received: 5 JUL 2010
- developing countries;
- late diagnosis;
Survival of retinoblastoma is >90% in developed countries but there are significant differences with developing countries in stage at presentation, available treatment options, family compliance, and survival. In low-income countries (LICs), children present with advanced disease, and the reasons are socioeconomic and cultural. In middle-income countries (MICs), survival rates are better (>70%), but there is a high prevalence of microscopically disseminated extraocular disease. Programs for eye preservation have been developed, but toxicity-related mortality is higher. Although effective treatment of microscopically extraocular disease improved the outcome, worldwide survival will be increased only by earlier diagnosis and better treatment adherence. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:341–348. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.