Disparities in cancer burden by race/ethnicity have been reported, primarily in adults with cancer. However, there appear to be gaps in the pediatric oncology literature with regards to a comprehensive overview on this topic. Extant literature is used to highlight the results of studies focusing on racial and ethnic disparities in outcome observed in selected childhood cancers. A comprehensive approach is utilized to understand possible underlying causes of disparities in cancer outcomes, and to highlight the gaps that currently exist. This review helps define areas of future research that could help develop targeted, disease-specific approaches to eliminate the disparities. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:994–1002. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.