Hyperhomocysteinemia may be associated with vascular complications in adults. Whereas pediatric thrombosis risk peaks in neonates, data on homocysteine (Hcy) levels assessed in term and preterm infants during the perinatal period are scarce. In the present study, we aimed to establish Hcy reference values for preterm infants and study their potential associations with the early post-natal health status. Plasma Hcy and hematocrit levels and MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C substitution) were studied in a large cohort of preterm infants in a tertiary referral medical center during an 18-month period. Data were collected on maternal history and delivery as well as on post-natal complications.