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Keywords:

  • glutathione S-transferase;
  • medulloblastoma;
  • ototoxicity;
  • polymorphism;
  • radiation

Abstract

Background

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are involved in detoxifying chemotherapy and clearing reactive oxygen species formed by radiation. We explored the relationship between the host GSTP1 105 A > G polymorphism (rs1695), tumor GSTpi protein expression, and clinical outcomes in pediatric medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that the GSTP1 105 G-allele and increased tumor GSTpi expression would be associated with lower progression-free survival and fewer adverse events.

Procedure

The study included 106 medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) patients seen at Texas Children's Cancer Center. Genotyping was performed using an Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad BeadChip and GSTpi expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. We used the Kaplan–Meier method for survival analyses and logistic regression for toxicity comparisons.

Results

Patients with a GSTP1 105 AG/GG genotype (vs. AA) or who had received high dose craniospinal radiation (≥34 Gy vs. <26 Gy) had a greater risk of requiring hearing aids than their counterparts (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2–13.6, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.8, respectively, n = 69). Additionally, there was a statistically significant interaction between these variables. Compared with the lowest risk group (GSTP1 105 AA–low dose radiation), patients with a GSTP1 105 AG/GG genotype who received high dose radiation were 8.4 times more likely to require hearing aids (95% CI 1.4–49.9, p-trend = 0.005, n = 69). When adjusted for age, cumulative cisplatin dose, and amifostine use, the association remained.

Conclusions

The GSTP1 105 G-allele is associated with permanent ototoxicity in pediatric medulloblastoma/PNET and strongly interacts with radiation dose. Patients with this allele should be considered for clinical trials employing radiation dose modifications and cytoprotectant strategies. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 593–598. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.