• neuroblastoma;
  • refractory neuroblastoma;
  • relapsed neuroblastoma;
  • pathology


Outcome for the vast majority of high-risk neuroblastoma patients with refractory or relapsed disease is dismal. We report two high-risk patients who remain progression-free for more than 113 and 18 months following the diagnosis of refractory/relapsed disease who were treated with surgery alone. Complete resolution of a refractory thoracic mass and relapsed liver nodules was observed in one patient. The refractory/relapsed disease in the second patient has remained stable. In both cases, the tumor showed histologic evidence of neuroblastoma maturation. These cases demonstrate that refractory/relapsed neuroblastoma is clinically heterogeneous and highlight the need for better biomarkers to optimize patient care. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 512–514. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.