• 1
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al., editors. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations), based on November 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2012. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2012.
  • 2
    Hudson MM, Neglia JP, Woods WG, et al. Lessons from the past: Opportunities to improve childhood cancer survivor care through outcomes investigations of historical therapeutic approaches for pediatric hematological malignancies. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012;58:334343.
  • 3
    Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, et al. Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: A prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery 2011;68:15481555.
  • 4
    Bataini JP, Delanian S, Ponvert D. Chiasmal gliomas: Results of irradiation management in 57 patients and review of literature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;21:615623.
  • 5
    Merchant TE, Kun LE, Wu S, et al. Phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:35983604.
  • 6
    Packer RJ. Chemotherapy: Low-grade gliomas of the hypthalamus and thalamus. Pediatr Neurosurg 2000;32:259263.
  • 7
    Kestle JR, J HH, R MA. Moyamoya phenomenon after radiation for optic glioma. J Neurosurg 1993;79:3235.
  • 8
    Packer RJ, Ater J, Allen J, et al. Carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed progressive low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg 1997;86:747754.
  • 9
    Fouladi M, Wallace D, Langston JW, et al. Survival and functional outcome of children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic tumors. Cancer 2003;97:10841092.
  • 10
    Chang CH, Housepian EM, Herbert C, Jr. An operative staging system and a megavoltage radiotherapeutic technic for cerebellar medulloblastomas. Radiology 1969;93:13511359.
  • 11
    Thomas PRM, Deutsch M, Kepner JL, et al. Low-stage medulloblastoma: Final analysis of trial comparing standard-dose with reduced-dose neuraxis irradiation. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:30043011.
  • 12
    Bailey CC, Gnekow A, Wellek S, et al. Prospective randomised trial of chemotherapy given before radiotherappy in childhood medulloblastoma. International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and the (German) Society of Paediatric Oncology (GPO): SIOP II. Med Pediatr Oncol 1995;25:166178.
  • 13
    Packer RJ, Goldwein J, Nicholson HS, et al. Treatment of children with medulloblastomas with reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: A Children's Cancer Group Study. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:21272136.
  • 14
    Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, et al. Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:42024208.
  • 15
    Fouladi M, Chintagumpala M, Ashley D, et al. Amifostine protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:37493755.
  • 16
    Gajjar A, Chintagumpala M, Ashley D, et al. Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma (St. Jude Medulloblastoma-96): Long-term results from a prospective, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol 2006;7:813820.
  • 17
    Jakacki RI. Treatment strategies for high-risk medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2005;102:4452.
  • 18
    Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, et al. Postoperative chemotherapy and delayed radiation in children less than three years of age with malignant brain tumors. N Engl J Med 1993;328:17251731.
  • 19
    Geyer JR, Sposto R, Jennings M, et al. Multiagent chemotherapy and deferred radiotherapy in infants with malignant brain tumors: A report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:76217631.
  • 20
    Rutkowski S, Bode U, Deinlein F, et al. Treatment of early childhood medulloblastoma by postoperative chemotherapy alone. N Engl J Med 2005;352:978986.
  • 21
    Ridola V, Grill J, Doz F, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue followed by posterior fossa irradiation for local medulloblastoma recurrence or progression after conventional chemotherapy. Cancer 2007;110:156163.
  • 22
    Hukin J, Epstein F, Lefton D, et al. Treatment of intracranial ependymoma by surgery alone. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998;29:4045.
  • 23
    Merchant TE, Li C, Xiong X, et al. Conformal radiotherapy after surgery for paediatric ependymoma: A prospective study. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:258266.
  • 24
    Conklin HM, Li C, Xiong X, et al. Predicting change in academic abilities after conformal radiation therapy for localized ependymoma. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:39653970.
  • 25
    Clark RD, Mansfield NC. Retinoblastoma: Genetic testing and counseling. In: Singh AD, Damato BE, Pe'er J, et al., editors. Clinical ophthalmic oncology. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. pp 441446.
  • 26
    Kleinerman RA, Yu CL, Little MP, et al. Variation of second cancer risk by family history of retinoblastoma among long-term survivors. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:950957.
  • 27
    Knudson AGJ. Mutation and cancer: Statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1971;68:820823.
  • 28
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Meadows AT. Retinoblastoma. In: Carroll WL, Finlay JL, editors. Cancer in children: The clinical biology of childhood cancer. Sudbury MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2010. pp 437457.
  • 29
    Murphree AT. Local therapy, brachytherapy and enucleation. In: Singh AD, Damato BE, Pe'er J, et al., editors. Clinical opththalmic oncology. Philadelphia: Sanders Elsevier; 2007. 454461.
  • 30
    Young JL, Smith MA, Roffers SD, et al. Retinoblastoma. In: Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, et al., editors. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975–1995. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program; 1999. 7378.
  • 31
    Rubin CM, Robison LL, Cameron JD, et al. Intraocular retinoblastoma group V: An analysis of prognostic factors. J Clin Oncol 1985;3:680685.
  • 32
    Hungerford JL, Toma NMG, Plowman PN, et al. External beam radiotherapy for retinoblastoma: I. Whole eye technique. Br J Ophthalmol 1995;79:109111.
  • 33
    Wilson MW, Haik BG, Liu T, et al. Effect on ocular survival of adding early intensive focal treatments to a two-drug chemotherapy regimen in patients with retinoblastoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;140:397406.
  • 34
    Friedman DL, Himelstein B, Shields CL, et al. Chemoreduction and local ophthalmic therapy for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1217.
  • 35
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wilson MW, Haik BG, et al. Treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma with vincristine and carboplatin. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:20192025.
  • 36
    Shields CL, Shields JA, Cater J, et al. Plaque radiotherapy for retinoblastoma. Long-term control and treatment complications in 208 tumors Ophthalmology 2001;108:21162121.
  • 37
    Chong EM, Coffee RE, Chintagumpala M, et al. Extensively necrotic retinoblastoma is associated with high-risk prognostic factors. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130:16691672.
  • 38
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Chantada GL, Haik BG, et al. Treatment of retinoblastoma: Current status and future perspectives. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2007;9:294307.
  • 39
    Hayden BH, Murray TG, Scott IU, et al. Subconjunctival carboplatin in retinoblastoma. Impact of tumor burden and dose schedule. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:15491554.
  • 40
    Krasin MJ, Crawford BT, Zhu Y, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for children with intraocular retinoblastoma; potential sparing of the bony orbit. Clin Oncol (Roy Coll Radiol) 2004;16:215222.
  • 41
    Krengli M, Hug EB, Adams JA, et al. Proton radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: Comparison of various intraocular tumor locations and beam arrangements. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61:583593.
  • 42
    Dunkel IJ, Aledo A, Kernan NA, et al. Successful treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma. Cancer 2000;89:21172121.
  • 43
    Kremens B, Wieland R, Reinhard H, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue in children with retinoblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003;31:281284.
  • 44
    Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wilson MW, Haik BG, et al. Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology 2003;110:12371240.
  • 45
    Finklestein JZ, Hittle RE, Hammond GD. Evaluation of a high dose cyclophosphamide regimen in childhood tumors. Cancer 1969;23:12391242.
  • 46
    Leikin S, Bernstein I, Evans A, et al. Use of combination adriamycin (NSC-123127) and DTIC (NSC-45388) in children with advanced stage IV neuroblastoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 1975;59:10151018.
  • 47
    Nitschke R, Starling KA, Vats T, et al. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (NSC-119875) in childhood malignancies: A Southwest Oncology Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 1978;4:127132.
  • 48
    Rivera G, Green A, Hayes A, et al. Epipodophyllotoxin VM-26 in the treatment of childhood neuroblastoma. Cancer Treat Rep 1977;61:12431248.
  • 49
    Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC, et al. Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 1989;7:236244.
  • 50
    Evans AE, Brand W, de Lorimier A, et al. Results in children with local and regional neuroblastoma managed with and without vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and imidazolecarboxamide. A report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Am J Clin Oncol 1984;7:37.
  • 51
    Jacobson G, Sause W, O'Brien R. Dose response analysis of pediatric neuroblastoma to megavoltage radiation. Am J Clin Oncol 1984;7:693697.
  • 52
    Matthay KK, Yanik G, Messina J, et al. Phase II study on the effect of disease sites, age, and prior therapy on response to iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in refractory neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:10541060.
  • 53
    Hartmann O, Pinkerton CR, Philip T, et al. Very-high-dose cisplatin and etoposide in children with untreated advanced neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:4450.
  • 54
    Castello MA, Clerico A, Jenkner A, et al. A pilot study of high-dose carboplatin and pulsed etoposide in the treatment of childhood solid tumors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1990;7:129135.
  • 55
    Hartmann O, Benhamou E, Beaujean F, et al. High-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide with autologous bone marrow transplantation support in advanced malignancies in children: A phase II study. J Clin Oncol 1986;4:18041810.
  • 56
    Cheung NK, Landmeier B, Neely J, et al. Complete tumor ablation with iodine 131-radiolabeled disialoganglioside GD2-specific monoclonal antibody against human neuroblastoma xenografted in nude mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986;77:739745.
  • 57
    Matthay KK, Villablanca JG, Seeger RC, et al. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341:11651173.
  • 58
    Gilman AL, Ozkaynak MF, Matthay KK, et al. Phase I study of ch14.18 with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 in children with neuroblastoma after autologous bone marrow transplantation or stem-cell rescue: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:8591.
  • 59
    Matthay KK, Tan JC, Villablanca JG, et al. Phase I dose escalation of iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation in refractory neuroblastoma: A new approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy Consortium study. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:500506.
  • 60
    Yu AL, Gilman AL, Ozkaynak MF, et al. Anti-GD2 antibody with GM-CSF, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 2010;363:13241334.
  • 61
    Green DM, Jaffe N. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of Wilms' tumor. Cancer 1979;44:5257.
  • 62
    Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, et al. Comparison between single-dose and divided-dose administration of dactinomycin and doxorubicin for patients with Wilms' tumor: A report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:237245.
  • 63
    Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, et al. Effect of duration of treatment on treatment outcome and cost of treatment for Wilms' tumor: A report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:37443751.
  • 64
    Tan CTC, Dargeon HW, Burchenal JH. The effect of actinomycin D on cancer in childhood. Pediatrics 1959;24:544561.
  • 65
    Pinkel D. Actinomycin D in childhood cancer. A preliminary report. Pediatrics 1959;23:342347.
  • 66
    Shaw RK, Moore EW, Mueller PS, et al. The effect of actinomycin D on childhood neoplasms. AMA J Dis Child 1960;99:628635.
  • 67
    Sutow WW. Chemotherapy in childhood cancer (except leukemia). Cancer 1968;18:15851589.
  • 68
    Farber S, editor. Clinical and biological studies with actinomycins. Boston: Little Brown and Company; 1958.
  • 69
    James DHJ, George P. Vincristine in children with malignant solid tumors. J Pediatr 1964;64:534541.
  • 70
    Selawry OS, Holland JF, Wolman IJ. Effect of vincristine (NSC 67574) on malignant solid tumors in children. Cancer Chemother Rep 1968;52:497500.
  • 71
    Sutow WW, Thurman WG, Windmiller J. Vincristine (leurocristine) sulfate in the treatment of children with metastatic Wilms' tumor. Pediatrics 1963;32:880887.
  • 72
    Bonnadonna G, Beretta G, Tancini G, et al. Adriamycin (NSC 123127) studies at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan. Cancer Chemo Rep 1975;6:231245.
  • 73
    Evans AE, Baehner RL, Chard RLJ, et al. Comparison of daunorubicin (NSC 83142) with Adriamycin (NSC 123127) in the treatment of late stage childhood solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 1974;58:671676.
  • 74
    Pratt CB, Shanks EC. Doxorubicin in treatment of malignant solid tumors in children. Am J Dis Child 1974;127:534536.
  • 75
    Ragab AH, Sutow WW, Komp DM, et al. Adriamycin in the treatment of childhood solid tumors. Cancer 1975;36:15671571.
  • 76
    Tan C, Rosen G, Ghavimi F, et al. Adriamycin (NSC 123127) in pediatric malignancies. Cancer Chemother Rep 1975;6:259266.
  • 77
    Wang JJ, Holland JF, Sinks LF. Phase II study of Adriamycin (NSC 123127) in childhood solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 1975;6:267270.
  • 78
    Neuhauser EBD, Wittenborg MH, Berman CZ, et al. Irradiation effects of roentgen therapy on the growing spine. Radiology 1952;59:637650.
  • 79
    Rubin P, Duthie RB, Young LW. The significance of scoliosis in postirradiated Wilms's tumor and neuroblastoma. Radiology 1962;79:539559.
  • 80
    D'Angio GJ, Evans AE, Breslow N, et al. The treatment of Wilms' tumor: Results of the National Wilms' Tumor Study. Cancer 1976;38:633646.
  • 81
    D'Angio GJ, Evans A, Breslow N, et al. The treatment of Wilms' tumor: Results of the Second National Wilms' Tumor Study. Cancer 1981;47:23022311.
  • 82
    D'Angio GJ, Breslow N, Beckwith JB, et al. Treatment of Wilms' tumor. Results of the Third National Wilms' Tumor Study. Cancer 1989;64:349360.
  • 83
    Grundy PE, Breslow NE, Li S, et al. Loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q is an adverse prognostic factor in favorable-histology Wilms tumor: A report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:73127321.
  • 84
    Sutow WW, Sullivan MP, Ried HL, et al. Prognosis in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 1970;25:13841390.
  • 85
    Sutow WW. Vincristine (NSC-67574) therapy for malignant solid tumors in children (except Wilms' tumor). Cancer Chemother Rep 1968;52:485487.
  • 86
    Steinberg J, Haddy TB, Porter FS, et al. Clinical trials with cyclophosphamide in children with soft tissue sarcoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 1963;28:3941.
  • 87
    Donaldson SS, Castro JR, Wilbur JR, et al. Rhabdomyosarcoma of head and neck in children. Combination treatment by surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy. Cancer 1973;31:2635.
  • 88
    James DHJ, Hustu O, Wrenn ELJ, et al. Childhood malignant tumors. Concurrent chemotherapy with dactinomycin and vincristine sulfate. JAMA 1966;197:10431045.
  • 89
    Wilbur JR. Combination chemotherapy for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 1974;58:281284.
  • 90
    Crist WM, Anderson JR, Meza JL, et al. Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: Results for patients with nonmetastatic disease. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:30913102.
  • 91
    Stevens MC, Rey A, Bouvet N, et al. Treatment of nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood and adolescence: Third study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology-SIOP malignant mesenchymal tumor 89. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:26182628.
  • 92
    Maurer HM, Beltangady M, Gehan EA, et al. The intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-I. A final report. Cancer 1988;61:209220.
  • 93
    Maurer HM, Gehan EA, Beltangady M, et al. The intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-II. Cancer 1993;71:19041922.
  • 94
    Crist W, Gehan EA, Ragab AH, et al. The third intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:610630.
  • 95
    Spunt S, Smith LM, Ruymann FB, et al. Cyclophosphamide dose intensification during induction therapy for intermediate-risk pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma is feasible but does not improve outcome: A report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:60726079.
  • 96
    Sandler E, Lyden E, Ruymann F, et al. Efficacy of ifosfamide and doxorubicin given as a phase II “window” in children with newly diagnosed metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 2001;37:442448.
  • 97
    Crist WM, Raney RB, Ragab A, et al. Intensive chemotherapy including cisplatin with or without etoposide for children with soft-tissue sarcomas. Med Pediatr Oncol 1987;15:5157.
  • 98
    Breitfeld PP, Lyden E, Raney RB, et al. Ifosfamide and etoposide are superior to vincristine and melphalan for pediatric metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when administered with irradiation and combination chemotherapy: A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2001;23:225233.
  • 99
    Pappo AS, Lyden E, Breneman J, et al. Up-front window trial of topotecan in previously untreated children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma: An Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:213219.
  • 100
    Walterhouse DO, Lyden ER, Breitfeld PP, et al. Efficacy of topotecan and cyclophosphamide given in a phase II window trial in children with newly diagnosed metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma: A Children's Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:13981403.
  • 101
    Pappo AS, Lyden E, Breitfeld P, et al. Two consecutive phase II window trials of irinotecan alone or in combination with vincristine for the treatment of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma: The Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:362369.
  • 102
    Wolden SL, Anderson JR, Crist WM, et al. Indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy after complete resection in rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Studies I to III. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:34683475.
  • 103
    Hays DM, Raney RBJ, Lawrence WJ, et al. Primary chemotherapy in the treatment of children with bladder-prostate tumors in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS-II). J Pediatr Surg 1982;17:812820.
  • 104
    Lobe TE, Wiener E, Andrassy RJ, et al. The argument for conservative, delayed surgery in the management of prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Surg 1996;31:10841087.
  • 105
    Arndt C, Rodeberg D, Breitfeld PP, et al. Does bladder preservation (as a surgical principle) lead to retaining bladder function in bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma? Results from Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Urol 2004;171:23962403.
  • 106
    Spunt SL, Sweeney TA, Hudson MM, et al. Late effects of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and its treatment in female survivors. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:71437151.
  • 107
    Sultan I, Qaddoumi I, Yaser S, et al. Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program 1973 to 2005: An analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:33913397.
  • 108
    Ochs JJ, Freeman AI, Douglass HO, Jr., et al. cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) in advanced osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer Treat Rep 1978;62:239245.
  • 109
    Baum ES, Gaynon P, Greenberg L, et al. Phase II study of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) in childhood osteosarcoma: Children's Cancer Study Group Report. Cancer Treat Rep 1979;63:16211627.
  • 110
    Raney RB, Meza J, Anderson JR, et al. Treatment of children and adolescents with localized parameningeal sarcoma: Experience of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocols IRS-II through -IV, 1978–1997 Med Pediatr Oncol 2002;38:2232.
  • 111
    Anninga JK, Gelderblom H, Fiocco M, et al. Chemotherapeutic adjuvant treatment for osteosarcoma: Where do we stand? Eur J Cancer 2011;47:24312445.
  • 112
    Carter SK. Adjuvant chemotherapy in osteogenic sarcoma: The triumph that isn't? J Clin Oncol 1984;2:147148.
  • 113
    Taylor WF, Ivins JC, Pritchard DJ, et al. Trends and variability in survival among patients with osteosarcoma: A 7-year update. Mayo Clin Proc 1985;60:91104.
  • 114
    Eilber F, Giuliano A, Eckardt J, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: A randomized prospective trial. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:2126.
  • 115
    Link MP, Goorin AM, Miser AW, et al. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse-free survival in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremity. N Engl J Med 1986;314:16001606.
  • 116
    Ettinger LJ, Douglass HOJ, Mindell ER, et al. Adjuvant Adriamycin and cisplatin in newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity. J Clin Oncol 1986;4:353362.
  • 117
    Goorin AM, Frei E III, Abelson HT. Adjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma: A decade of experience. Surg Clin North Am 1981;61:13791389.
  • 118
    Pratt CB, Champion JE, Fleming ID, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma of the extremity. Long-term results of two consecutive prospective protocol studies. Cancer 1990;65:439445.
  • 119
    Harris MB, Cantor AB, Goorin AM, et al. Treatment of osteosarcoma with ifosfamide: Comparison of response in pediatric patients with recurrent disease versus patients previously untreated: A Pediatric Oncology Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 1995;24:8792.
  • 120
    Miser JS, Kinsella TJ, Triche TJ, et al. Ifosfamide with mesna uroprotection and etoposide: An effective regimen in the treatment of recurrent sarcomas and other tumors of children and young adults. J Clin Oncol 1987;5:11911198.
  • 121
    Rosen G, Marcove RC, Caparros B, et al. Primary osteogenic sarcoma: The rationale for preoperative chemotherapy and delayed surgery. Cancer 1979;43:21632177.
  • 122
    Rosen G, Murphy ML, Huvos AG, et al. Chemotherapy, en bloc resection, and prosthetic bone replacement in the treatment of osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer 1976;37:111.
  • 123
    Goorin AM, Schwartzentruber DJ, Devidas M, et al. Presurgical chemotherapy compared with immediate surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic osteosarcoma: Pediatric Oncology Group Study POG-8651. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:15741580.
  • 124
    Bielack S, Jurgens H, Jundt G, et al. Osteosarcoma: The COSS experience. Cancer Treat Res 2009;152:289308.
  • 125
    Picci P, Mercuri M, Ferrari S, et al. Survival in high-grade osteosarcoma: Improvement over 21 years at a single institution. Ann Oncol 2010;21:13661373.
  • 126
    Petrilli AS, de Camargo B, Filho VO, et al. Results of the Brazilian Osteosarcoma Treatment Group Studies III and IV: Prognostic factors and impact on survival. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:11611168.
  • 127
    Meyers PA, Schwartz CL, Krailo M, et al. Osteosarcoma: A randomized, prospective trial of the addition of ifosfamide and/or muramyl tripeptide to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:20042011.
  • 128
    Meyers PA, Schwartz CL, Krailo MD, et al. Osteosarcoma: The addition of muramyl tripeptide to chemotherapy improves overall survival—a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:633638.
  • 129
    Chou AJ, Kleinerman ES, Krailo MD, et al. Addition of muramyl tripeptide to chemotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer 2009;115:53395348.
  • 130
    Bielack SS. Osteosarcoma: Time to move on? Eur J Cancer 2010;46:19421945.
  • 131
    Sutow WW, Sullivan MP. Cyclophosphamide therapy in children with Ewing's sarcoma. Cancer Chemother Rep 1962;23:5560.
  • 132
    Senyszyn JJ, Johnson RE, Curran RE. Treatment of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma with actinomycin D (NSC-3053). Cancer Chemother Rep 1970;54:103107.
  • 133
    Green DM. Evaluation of single-dose vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide in childhood solid tumors. Cancer Treat Rep 1978;62:15171520.
  • 134
    Pratt CB, James DHJ, Holton CP, et al. Combination therapy including vincristine (NSC-67574) for malignant solid tumors in children. Cancer Chemother Rep 1968;52:489495.
  • 135
    Hustu HO, Holton C, James DJ, et al. Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. J Pediatr 1968;73:249251.
  • 136
    Hustu HO, Pinkel D, Pratt CB. Treatment of clinically localized Ewing's sarcoma with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Cancer 1972;30:15221527.
  • 137
    Strong LC, Herson J, Osborne BM, et al. Risk of radiation-related subsequent malignant tumors in survivors of Ewing's sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1979;62:14011406.
  • 138
    Pomeroy TC, Johnson RE. Combined modality therapy of Ewing's sarcoma. Cancer 1975;35:3647.
  • 139
    Rosen G, Caparros B, Mosende C, et al. Curability of Ewing's sarcoma and considerations for future therapeutic trials. Cancer 1978;41:888899.
  • 140
    Suit HD, Martin RG, Sutow WW. Primary malignant tumors of the bone. In: Sutow WW, Vietti TJ, Fernbach DJ, editors. Clinical Pediatric Oncology. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby; 1973. pp 480487.
  • 141
    Nesbit MEJ, Perez CA, Tefft M, et al. Multimodal therapy for the management of primary, nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone: An Intergroup Study. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1981;56:255262.
  • 142
    Razek A, Perez CA, Tefft M, et al. Intergroup Ewing's sarcoma study: Local control related to radiation dose, volume, and site of primary lesion in Ewing's sarcoma. Cancer 1980;46:516521.
  • 143
    Burgert EO, Jr., Nesbit ME, Garnsey LA, et al. Multimodal therapy for the management of nonpelvic, localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone: Intergroup study IESS-II. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:15141524.
  • 144
    Scheulen ME, Niederle N, Bremer K, et al. Efficacy of ifosfamide in refractory malignant diseases and uroprotection by mesna: Results of a clinical phase II-study with 151 patients. Cancer Treat Rev 1983;10:93101.
  • 145
    Meyer WH, Kun L, Marina N, et al. Ifosfamide plus etoposide in newly diagnosed Ewing's sarcoma of bone. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:17371742.
  • 146
    Grier HE, Krailo MD, Tarbell NJ, et al. Addition of ifosfamide and etoposide to standard chemotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone. N Engl J Med 2003;348:694701.
  • 147
    Granowetter L, Womer R, Devidas M, et al. Dose-intensified compared with standard chemotherapy for nonmetastatic Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:25362541.
  • 148
    Oldham RK, Pomeroy TC. Treatment of Ewing's sarcoma with Adriamycin (NSC-123127). Cancer Chemother Rep 1972;56:635639.
  • 149
    Bacci G, Ferrari S, Bertoni F, et al. Prognostic factors in nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: Analysis of 359 patients at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:411.
  • 150
    Bacci G, Forni C, Longhi A, et al. Long-term outcome for patients with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapies 402 patients treated at Rizzoli between 1972 and 1992. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:7383.
  • 151
    Schuck A, Ahrens S, Paulussen M, et al. Local therapy in localized Ewing tumors: Results of 1058 patients treated in the CESS 81, CESS 86, and EICESS 92 trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:168177.
  • 152
    Womer RB, West DC, Krailo MD, et al. Randomized controlled trial of interval-compressed chemotherapy for the treatment of localized Ewing sarcoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:41484154.