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Keywords:

  • autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome;
  • juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia;
  • sirolimus;
  • thrombotic thrombopenic purpura

We describe an infant who developed juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) at the age of 6 months. Myeloproliferation was effectively controlled by low-dose cytosine arabinoside and 13-cis retinoic acid therapy. Two years after therapy for JMML was stopped, at the age of 5 years, the patient developed autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). TTP was transiently controlled by plasma exchange, prednisolone, rituximab, and cyclophosphamide, but relapsed within a short time. Long-term control of TTP was established by sirolimus. Somatic N-RAS G38A[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]Gly13Asp substitution was restricted to hematopoietic cells. The somatic N-RAS mutation may link myeloproliferation and autoimmunity. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014; 61:1871–1873. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.