SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

The characteristic influences of increasing concentrations of graphene, expanded graphite (EG), carbon black (CB), and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) are investigated on pyrolysis, reaction to small flame, burning behavior, and on electrical, thermal, and rheological properties of flame retarded polypropylene (PP-FR). The property-concentration dependency is different for the various material properties, as threshold, linear, and leveling off functions were observed. Increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the electrical resistivity of the polymer by crossing the percolation threshold. The developing nanoparticle network changes melt flow behavior for small shear rates, increases thermal conductivity and therefore, affects the UL 94 classification and oxygen index. The onset temperature of PP decomposition is shifted to temperatures up to 37°C higher; the peak heat release rate is reduced by up to 74% compared to PP-FR. Both effects leveled off with increasing particle concentration. Among the four carbon nanomaterials tested, graphene presents superior influence on composite properties over the tested concentration range and outperforms commercial CB, MWNT, and EG. POLYM. COMPOS., 36:1230–1241, 2015. © 2014 Society of Plastics Engineers