Extraction of Antioxidants from Spruce (Picea abies) Bark using Eco-friendly Solvents
Article first published online: 24 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 1–11, January/February 2012
How to Cite
Co, M., Fagerlund, A., Engman, L., Sunnerheim, K., Sjöberg, P. J.R. and Turner, C. (2012), Extraction of Antioxidants from Spruce (Picea abies) Bark using Eco-friendly Solvents. Phytochem. Anal., 23: 1–11. doi: 10.1002/pca.1316
- Issue published online: 5 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 24 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 OCT 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 12 OCT 2010
- Manuscript Received: 18 AUG 2010
- Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning. Grant Numbers: 209-2006-1346, 229-2009-1527
- Swedish Research Council. Grant Number: 2006-4084
- Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. Grant Number: 2005:0073/13
- accelerated solvent extraction;
- Picea abies;
- pressurised fluid extraction;
- supercritical fluid extraction;
- stilbene glucosides
Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants.
To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark.
A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants.
PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts.
The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.