• quantification;
  • essential oil;
  • flavonoids;
  • Amaranthaceae;
  • Dysphania graveolens;
  • Dysphania ambrosioides



Dysphania graveolens is used mainly in Mexican traditional medicine against gastrointestinal ailments. Previous investigations revealed that its flavonoids are important active principles; however, there is not a reliable and accurate analytical method for determining these compounds in the crude drug or preparations of the plant. In addition, its volatile chemical composition remains unknown.


The main goals were to develop a validated HPLC method for quantifying the active flavonoids (pinostrobin (1), pinocembrin (2) and chrysin (3)) of D. graveolens and to establish its volatile composition.


Separation was carried out on a Licrospher100 RP18 column with a linear gradient acetonitrile 0.1% formic acid and aqueous 0.1% formic acid. Accuracy was determined by spiking the crude drug with the standards, the recoveries were between 99% and 101%. A systematic description of the volatile components of D. graveolens was assessed via GC–MS using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS–SPME) and hydrodistillation extraction methods.


The developed HPLC method represented a powerful technique for the quality control of D. graveolens allowing the quantification of the three active flavonoids. For each compound a linear response was evaluated within the range of 0.5–2.0 mg/mL for pinostrobin (1), 0.25–1.25 mg/mL for pinocembrin (2) and 0.05–0.5 mg/mL for chrysin (3). According to SPME the major components in D. graveolens were p-cymene (84.85%) and eucalyptol (11.26%). On the other hand, the essential oil had eucalyptol (42.89%) and p-cymene (16.51%) and did not contain ascaridol. Thus the most relevant volatile components in the species were monoterpenoids. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.