Chemical and Functional Characterisation of Propolis Collected from East Andalusia (Southern Spain)

Authors

  • Shigenori Kumazawa,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Japan
    • Correspondence to: S. Kumazawa, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52–1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422–8526, Japan. Email: kumazawa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

      F. J. Orantes Bermejo, Apinevada Analytical Laboratory of Bee Products, 18420 Lanjarón, Granada, Spain. Email: apinevada@terra.es

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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Josep Serra Bonvehí,

    1. Research and Development of Nederland Co, Viladecans, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Cristina Torres,

    1. Apinevada Analytical Laboratory of Bee Products, Lanjarón, Granada, Spain
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  • Ahn Mok-Ryeon,

    1. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University, Saka-gu, Busan, Republic of Korea
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  • Francisco José Orantes Bermejo

    Corresponding author
    1. Apinevada Analytical Laboratory of Bee Products, Lanjarón, Granada, Spain
    • Correspondence to: S. Kumazawa, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52–1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422–8526, Japan. Email: kumazawa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

      F. J. Orantes Bermejo, Apinevada Analytical Laboratory of Bee Products, 18420 Lanjarón, Granada, Spain. Email: apinevada@terra.es

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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

ABSTRACT

Introduction

Propolis is a complex mixture of natural sticky, gummy and resinous components produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from plant materials. However, phytochemical data of the Andalusian (southern Spain) propolis are scant.

Objective

The primary objectives of this study were to chemically characterise the compounds and evaluate the anti-oxidant activity found in 28 Andalusian propolis samples.

Methods

Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared and examined for their anti-oxidant activity by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays. To characterise the phenolic composition, the presence of 11 compounds was identified by HPLC analysis with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection.

Results

All propolis samples had strong anti-oxidant activity, accompanied by high total phenolic content. The most abundant compounds were flavonoids. Concerning the phenolic compounds content, our results showed that the 75% of the samples analysed contained at least 80 mg/g of flavonoids, primarily pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin and pinobanksin. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester was detected in almost all EEP samples but in smaller proportions (mean 12.9 ± 2.8 mg/g).

Conclusion

The present investigation constitutes the first comprehensive report on the phenolics identified in southern Spanish propolis. The results revealed that the samples tested showed a high scavenging activity and therefore indicate the possible use of Andalusian propolis as an important source of natural anti-oxidants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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