Phytochemical Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 2

March/April 2012

Volume 23, Issue 2

Pages 95–189

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    1. A New Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Strychnine and Brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica Unprocessed and Processed Seeds Using a Carbon-paste Electrode Modified with Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 95–102)

      Mohsen Behpour, Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi, Maryam Khayatkashani and Mohamadhasan Motaghedifard

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1327

      A new, sensitive and selective method using a carbon-paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT/CPE) was developed and validated for single or simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica seeds. Additionally, an environmentally-friendly method using milk and saltwater was successfully applied to reduce the levels of strychnine and brucine in seeds. Cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry and differential pulse voltammetry were used with multi-walled carbon nanotube modified carbon-paste electrodes.

    2. Characterisation of the Degradation of Salvianolic Acid B Using an On-line Spectroscopic Analysis System and Multivariate Curve Resolution (pages 103–109)

      Zheng Xintian and Qu Haibin

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1330

      Chinese herbal medicines contain complex ingredients that are unstable during the manufacturing process. Current off-line methods are usually time-consuming and inaccurate. An on-line spectroscopic analysis system in the evaluation of the degradation of unstable compounds was implemented, using salvianolic acid B from Danshen as a model compound. The results suggested that the combined use of on-line spectroscopic analysis and MCR might be a cheap, readily available, sensitive tool to monitor the transformation of unstable components of Chinese herbal medicines.

    3. Simultaneous Determination of Eight Anthraquinones in Semen Cassiae by HPLC-DAD (pages 110–116)

      Lijia Xu, Chi-on Chan, Ching-ching Lau, Zhiling Yu, Daniel K. W. Mok and Sibao Chen

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1331

      A rapid, sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed to simultaneously quantify eight major anthraquinones, obtusifolin-2-glucoside, aurantio-obtusin, aloe-emodin, rhein, obtusifolin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in Semen Cassiae (SC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This validated method was successfully used to analyse 22 batches of SC samples collected from various geographical locations. Meanwhile, amore specific anthraquinone, obtusifolin,was proposed to serve as a marker for SC.

    4. Rapid Identification of Calotropagenin Glycosides Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry (pages 117–125)

      Sanjeev Kanojiya and K. P. Madhusudanan

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1332

      In order to achieve rapid identification of cardiac glycosides in phytochemical extracts a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed involving metal cationisation by post-column addition of alkali salts for the unambiguous determination of their molecular weights. Tandem mass spectra of protonated molecules provided additional structural information.

    5. NASCA-HMBC, a New NMR Methodology for the Resolution of Severely Overlapping Signals: Application to the Study of Agathisflavone (pages 126–130)

      Gaétan Bayiha Ba Njock, Trixie Ann Bartholomeusz, Mohammadali Foroozandeh, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb, Philippe Christen and Damien Jeannerat

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1333

      The low resolution of standard 2D HMBC spectra makes it very difficult to assign signals of close pairs of carbons. The NASCA-HMBC (Non-ambiguous Assignment by Superposition of Coupled Aliased HMBC) combines a pair of aliased HMBC spectra to provide one order of magnitude increase in the resolution. Application to agathisflavone, a biflavonoid found in Ouratea gilgiana resulted in spectra with a sufficiently high resolution to make the assignment straightforward and report, for the first time, its full assignment.

    6. The Most Frequently Encountered Volatile Contaminants of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts Introduced During the Isolation Procedure: Fast and Easy Profiling (pages 131–142)

      Niko S. Radulović and Polina D. Blagojević

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1334

      Detailed GC-MS analyses of the evaporation residues of six commercially available diethyl ethers and of a plastic bag hydrodistillate resulted in the identification of almost 200 different compounds representing the most common semi-volatile contaminants of essential oils and plant extracts. This data set puts forward information on the likelihood of rejection or acceptance of contaminants as possible plant constituents. Suggested average mass scans approach enables fast and easy profiling of solvents allowing even an inexperienced researcher to pinpoint contaminants.

    7. HPLC Analysis of Oxindole Alkaloids in Uncaria Tomentosa: Sample Preparation and Analysis Optimisation by Factorial Design (pages 143–151)

      Gustavo Bertol, Luzia Franco and Brás Heleno de Oliveira

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1335

      Uncaria tomentosa (“cat's claw”) is used worldwide for the treatment of many diseases and oxindole alkaloids are regarded as their most important bioactive components. We developed and validated a HPLC method for determination of those compounds in the plant using factorial experimental designs for optimization of both sample preparation and chromatographic separation. Calibration using mitraphylline provided more accurate estimates of total alkaloid content when compared to other reference alkaloids.

    8. Preparative Isolation, Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Purification and Biological Activity of Cajaflavanone from Derris ferruginea Stems (pages 152–158)

      Sylvie Morel, Anne Landreau, Van Hung Nguyen, Séverine Derbré, Philippe Grellier, Patrice Le Pape, Fabrice Pagniez, Marc Litaudon and Pascal Richomme

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1336

      Objective – To develop an efficient preparative isolation of cajaflavanone in a single run from the stems of Derris ferruginea.

      Methodology – Results of a conventional method were compared to those obtained from an optimized fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) of an amount of the same extract.

      Results – FCPC enabled purification in just a one-step separation and a high yield for large biological screening. Cajaflavanone exhibited an interesting inhibition effect towards the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs).

    9. Isolation of High Quality RNA from Cereal Seeds Containing High Levels of Starch (pages 159–163)

      Guifeng Wang, Gang Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Fang Wang and Rentao Song

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1337

      We developed a modified SDS/Trizol method to extract high-quality total RNA from starch and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds. The combination use of a Tris buffer and SDS before Trizol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such buffer. The isolated RNA was in high quality and suitable for further downstream molecular manipulations. This method is an easy, efficient, and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds.

    10. Two-dimensional Hydrophilic Interaction/Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatography for the Preparative Separation of Polar and Non-polar Taxanes (pages 164–170)

      Hassan Rezadoost and Alireza Ghassempour

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1338

      One of the best known compounds of natural origin, which has been employed in the pharmaceutical industry, is Paclitaxel (Taxol®). It belongs to the taxanes extracted from different parts of yew trees (Taxaceae), cell cultures, and taxane-producing endophytic fungi. In this work, a novel on-line two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography using hydrophilic interaction/reversed-phase chromatography for preparative separation of polar and non-polar taxanes was introduced. Using this method polar and non-polar taxanes could be separated in both analytical and semi-preparative scales.

    11. A Validated Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Method for Quantification of Total Lactones in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata (pages 171–176)

      Garg Shivali, Lahorkar Praful and Gadgil Vijay

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1339

      Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a technique widely used for detection and quantification of various chemical moieties. This paper describes the use of the FT-IR spectroscopy technique for the quantification of total lactones present in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata. The FT-IR spectroscopy method proved linear, accurate, precise and specific, with low limits of detection and quantification, for estimation of total lactones, and is less tedious than the UV spectrophotometric method.

    12. Monitoring of Phenolic Compounds for the Quality Control of Melissa officinalis Products by Capillary Electrophoresis (pages 177–183)

      Gimena Acosta, Silvia Arce, Luis D. Martínez, Juan Llabot and María R. Gomez

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1340

      A Capillary Electrophoresis method was developed to monitoring the phenolic composition in herbs from the Lamiaceae family and for rapidly detecting Melissa officinalis adulteration or substitution in commercial medicinal samples in Argentina. The proposed method can be used for the standardization and quality control of plant material and phytopharmaceutical products with similar chemical composition to M. officinalis.

    13. A Thin-layer Chromatography Method for the Identification of Three Different Olibanum Resins (Boswellia serrata, Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, respectively, Boswellia sacra) (pages 184–189)

      Michael Paul, Gerit Brüning, Jochen Bergmann and Johann Jauch

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1341

      A thin-layer chromatography method was developed, allowing unambiguous identification of three different and pharmacologically interesting olibanum species (Boswellia papyrifera Hochst., Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Boswellia carterii Birdw., respectively Boswellia sacra Flueck.). For Boswellia papyrifera incensole and incensole acetate are specific biomarkers. Boswellia carterii/Boswella sacra reveal a significant ß-caryophyllene-oxide spot. Boswellia serrata can be identified by a strong serratol spot and a sharp 3-oxo-8,24-dien-tirucallic acid spot. The method can be used for quality control of purchased olibanum samples.