Phytochemical Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 5

September/October 2012

Volume 23, Issue 5

Pages 421–558

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    1. Bio-assay Guided Isolation of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from Hibiscus Mutabilis Leaves (pages 421–425)

      Deepak Kumar, Hemanth Kumar, J. R. Vedasiromoni and Bikas C. Pal

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1375

      A bioassay guided fractionation, based on inhibition of α-glucosidase, allowed isolation and identification of active constituents from the leaves of H. mutabilis. This paper describes a validated HPLC method for the quantification of ferulic acid and caffeic acid. The result suggests the possible use of the plant in the management of diabetic complications.

    2. A Validated Method for the Simultaneous Quantitation of Bioactive Alkaloid Markers in the Leaf Ethanolic Extract of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl.: a Phenological Variation Study (pages 426–432)

      A. F. Marinho, J. M. Barbosa-Filho and E. J. Oliveira

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1376

      We developed a method to simultaneously quantify the three main alkaloids present in extracts of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae), a species which have shown promising biological activities in animal models of asthma and allergy. The method was applied to a phenological study demonstrating that the lowest levels of alkaloids in the ethanolic extract of leaves occur during fruit ripening (decreasing from 2.9 to 0.9 mg/g extract) which coincides with detection of the alkaloids in the ripened fruits.

    3. Towards an Efficient Protocol for the Determination of Triterpenic Acids in Olive Fruit: A Comparative Study of Drying and Extraction Methods (pages 444–449)

      Vlasios Goulas and George A. Manganaris

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1378

      Triterpenic acids, such as maslinic acid and oleanolic acid, are commonly found in olive fruits and have been associated with many health benefits. The drying and extraction methods are critical factors in the determination of their concentration in plant tissues. This study provides a rapid and low-cost extraction method, such as the ultrasonic assisted extraction with an eco-friendly solvent like ethanol, from frozen or lyophilized olive fruit for the accurate determination of triterpenic acid content in olive fruit.

    4. Characterisation and Quantification of Flavonoids in Iris germanica L. and Iris pallida Lam. Resinoids from Morocco (pages 450–455)

      B. Roger, V. Jeannot, X. Fernandez, S. Cerantola and J. Chahboun

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1379

      In this first publication about iris resinoid composition, flavonoids were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated in Iris germanica and Iris pallida resinoids. Eight isoflavones were identified in both resinoids (irigenin, iristectorigenin A, nigricin, nigricanin, irisflorentin, iriskumaonin methyl ether, irilone, iriflogenin), one isoflavone only was identified in I. germanica resinoid (irisolidone), whereas one isoflavone (8-hydroxyirigenin), one isoflavanone (2,3-dihydroirigenin) and one benzophenone (2,6,4′-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) only were identified in I. pallida resinoid. Isoflavones were quantified in I. germanica and I. pallida resinoids at 180 ± 1.6 mg/g and 120 ± 3.3 mg/g respectively.

    5. High-sensitivity Determination of Curcumin in Human Urine Using Gemini Zwitterionic Surfactant as a Probe by Resonance Light Scattering Technique (pages 456–461)

      Xi Chen, Shengwang Liang, Li Zhu, Jinbin Liu, Guomin Zhang and Zhanguang Chen

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.1380

      A novel high-sensitivity assay for determination of curcumin is proposed based on the intense resonance light scattering (RLS) enhancement due to the interaction between curcumin and phosphodiesters quaternary ammonium salt (PQAS). There is a good linear relationship between ΔIRLS and the concentration of curcumin in the range of 0.08–60.0 µg/mL. The detection limit (3σ) was 2.6 ng/mL. The proposed assay could be used to detect curcumin in body fluid samples and was more sensitive than that reported previously.

    6. Application of High-speed Countercurrent Chromatography–Evaporative Light Scattering Detection for the Separation of Seven Steroidal Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (pages 462–468)

      Kee Dong Yoon, Young-Won Chin, Min Hye Yang, Janggyoo Choi and Jinwoong Kim

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2342

      Steroidal saponins in Dioscorea species are principally characterized as spirostanol and furostanol saponins, and have been used as standard marker compounds due to chemotaxonomical significance and versatile biological activities. Two-step high-speed counter current chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection method was applied to separate three furostanol saponins (parvifloside 1, methyl protodeltonin 2, trigofoenoside A-1 3) and four spirostanol saponins (zingiberensis saponin I 4, deltonin 5, dioscin 6, prosapogenin A of dioscin 7) with high purities, adequate time and labor.

    7. Determination of Aflatoxins in Medicinal Herbs by High-performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (pages 469–476)

      Lina Liu, Hongyu Jin, Lei Sun, Shuangcheng Ma and Ruichao Lin

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2343

      This simple and accurate method effectively eliminates false positive detection and can be used to determine the AFs in medicinal herbs to control product quality. We found that in the 174 samples tested, 27 were contaminated with AFs. The incidences of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in the samples tested were 15.52%, 14.37%, 6.32% and 2.30%, respectively. We proposed 10mg/kg total AFs and 5mg/kg AFB1 as the reasonable maximum limits (ML) in medicinal herbs, and there are 10 samples (5.71% occurrence) in our test that exceeded this proposed limit.

    8. Isolation of Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids from Macleaya microcarpa ( maxim.) fedde: Comparison of Maceration, Soxhlet Extraction and Pressurised Liquid Extraction (pages 477–482)

      Jana Urbanová, Kristýna Pěnčíková, Jana Gregorová, Barbora Hohnová, Lenka Šťavíková, Pavel Karásek, Michal Roth and Eva Táborská

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2344

      Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), Soxhlet extraction and maceration have been tested as the techniques to isolate quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) from Macleaya microcarpa roots. The solvents employed were methanol, ethanol and their aqueous solutions (1:1, v/v). To produce comparable yields of QBAs, PLE required up to 30 min compared to 21 h for Soxhlet extraction and 49 days for maceration. Therefore, PLE appears to be the most time-efficient method to isolate QBAs from Macleaya microcarpa roots.

    9. Isolation and Quantitation of Ecologically Important Phloroglucinols and Other Compounds from Eucalyptus jensenii (pages 483–491)

      Jasmeen Sidana, William J. Foley and Inder Pal Singh

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2345

      Optimization of extraction conditions, quantitation and a simple, rapid and low cost procedure for preparative scale isolation of jensenone is described. A new monomeric phloroglucinol compound was isolated and characterized from the acetone extract of Eucalyptus jensenii leaves. Also, a simple and sensitive RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of 19 phloroglucinols and other compounds in different extracts of E. jensenii leaves.

    10. Metabolic Fingerprinting of Tussilago farfara L. Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis (pages 492–501)

      Hai-Juan Zhi, Xue-Mei Qin, Hai-Feng Sun, Li-Zeng Zhang, Xiao-Qing Guo and Zhen-Yu Li

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2346

      The chemical profiles of its leaves and flowers were systematically investigated using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. A broad range of metabolites were detected without any chromatographic separation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of 1H-NMR data provided a clear separation between the leaves and flowers, and differential metabolites were revealed by corresponding loading plots.

    11. Stability Studies of Crude Plant Material of Bacopa monnieri and Quantitative Determination of Bacopaside I and Bacoside A by HPLC (pages 502–507)

      Pratibha Srivastava, Hema N. Raut, Hemalata M. Puntambekar and Anagha C. Desai

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2347

      Bacopa monnieri is used as drug and food supplementation for memory improvement. Bacoside A and bacopaside I are the two bioactive saponins present in B. monnieri. The paper reports stability and quantification of bacoside A and bacopaside I present in the crude plant material, stored at different conditions with the help of HPLC analyses. The study reveals that the samples kept under LS condition have been found rich in saponins as compared to samples stored for AS and RT studies.

    12. Chemometric Classification of Morphologically Similar Umbelliferae Medicinal Herbs by DART-TOF-MS Fingerprint (pages 508–512)

      Sang Min Lee, Hye-Jin Kim and Young Pyo Jang

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2348

      Chemometric classification method using DART-TOF-MS fingerprint for morphological similar Umbelliferae medicinal herbs, Angelica tenuissima, Angelica gigas, Angelica dahurica, and Cnidium officinale were developed. OPLS-DA studies of DART-MS fingerprint gave successful discrimination between four species of Umbelliferae plants.

    13. Optimisation of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Puerarin and Total Isoflavones from Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi) with Response Surface Methodology (pages 513–519)

      Yanfang Wu, Xinsheng Wang and Enguo Fan

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2349

      The present study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for puerarin and total isoflavone extraction from Puerariae Lobatae Radix using response surface methodology. The data showed that the response surface model allows for optimizing the extraction parameters such that maximum extraction of puerarin and total isoflavones was achieved experimentally.

    14. Rapid Profiling of Intact Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis Leaves by UHPLC-QTOFMS Using a Charged Surface Hybrid Column (pages 520–528)

      Gaetan Glauser, Fabian Schweizer, Ted C. J. Turlings and Philippe Reymond

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2350

      A rapid method based on ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry is proposed for the analysis of 21 intact glucosinolates (GS) in Arabidopsis leaf samples. Several sub-2 µm supports were tested and a novel charged surface hybrid column (CSH) was found highly suitable for the adequate retention and separation of GS. The method developed was applied successfully to quantify changes in GS levels in response to insect herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    15. Chemical Composition of South American Burseraceae Non-volatile Oleoresins and Preliminary Solubility Assessment of their Commercial Blend (pages 529–539)

      A. C. Siani, M. J. Nakamura, M. R. R. Tappin, S. S. Monteiro, A. C. Guimarães and M. F. S. Ramos

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2351

      Oleoresins from eleven Protium and Trattinickia (Burseraceae) species were submitted to exhaustive hydrodistillation, and the non-volatile residues were analyzed by CG-FID and CG-MS. A pentacyclic triterpene-based chemical profile, constituted by the alcohols α- and β-amyrin (50–90%) and their corresponding ketones (up to 40%), was demonstrated to be common to all the samples. Less abundant compounds were represented by the tetracyclic α- and β-elemolic acids and 3-oxo-derivatives (0–33% overall), and 3,16-dihydroxy-triterpenes (< 10% of maniladiol and brein). These results pointed out to a qualitative averaged ursane/oleanane triterpene constitution for these South American resins, and were reinforced by analyzing a commercial crude resin blend as well as compiling data from the literature. The blend solubility was tested in a series of thirty different solvents usually employed for industrial paint and varnishing purposes. The better ones were those possessing at least four carbons in their molecules. The insoluble residue (up to 12%) from treating the crude blend with n-butyl acetate showed to be composed by inorganic compounds and humic acids residues.

    16. Ultrasonic Microwave-assisted Extraction Coupled with High-speed Counter-Current Chromatography for the Preparation of Nigakinones from Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn (pages 540–546)

      Xiaohua Xiao, Xiaoxi Si, Xing Tong and Gongke Li

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2352

      Ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high speed counter-current chromatography was developed for the preparation of nigakinones from Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn, and 2.1 mg nigakinone with purity of 96.8% as well as methylnigakinone with purity of 75.6% were obtained in one step within 200 min.

    17. Profiling Phlorotannins in Brown Macroalgae by Liquid Chromatography–High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (pages 547–553)

      Aaron J. Steevensz, Shawna L. MacKinnon, Rachael Hankinson, Cheryl Craft, Solène Connan, Dagmar B. Stengel and Jeremy E. Melanson

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2354

      Phlorotannin-enriched extracts from five phaeophyceaen species were analysed by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) operating in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Fucus vesiculosus yielded a high abundance of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) phlorotannins, while Pelvetia canaliculata exhibited a more evenly distributed profile, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 3 to 49. HRMS enabled the identification of phlorotannins with masses up to 6000 Da using accurate mass and 13C isotopic patterns.

    18. HPLC Quantitative Analysis of Insecticidal Didehydrostemofoline and Stemofoline in Stemona collinsiae Root Extracts (pages 554–558)

      Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon and Wandee Gritsanapan

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2356

      For the determination of the contents of didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline in Stemona collinsiae root extracts, an analytical HPLC method was developed using a RP-18 column with methanol:1 m m ammonium acetate (55:45) as a mobile phase. The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. Eight samples of S. collinsiae root extracts were analysed and the method was suitable for the analysis of the extracts from this plant.