Phytochemical Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 23 Issue 6

November/December 2012

Volume 23, Issue 6

Pages 559–696

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    1. Tandem Solid Phase Extraction Followed by Online Trapping–Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Sensitive Detection of Endogenous Cytokinins in Plant Tissues (pages 559–568)

      Zhao Liu, Bi-Feng Yuan and Yu-Qi Feng

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2353

      A tandem SPE–online trapping–HILIC-MS/MS method was developed in the current study for the rapid and highly sensitive determination of cytokinins (CKs) in small amount plant samples. The tandem SPE offers quicker extraction of plant CKs and the online system provides higher detection sensitivity than commonly used methods. By using the method, good linearities, high recoveries and satisfactory reproducibility were obtained. Only 20 mg of plant tissues were required for simultaneous quantitative analysis of the major CKs.

    2. Optimisation of a Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Methodology for Simultaneous Analysis of Organic Aliphatic Acids in Extracts of Brachiaria brizantha (pages 569–575)

      Fernando Antonio Simas Vaz, Patrícia Aparecida da Silva, Leônidas Paixão Passos, Melina Heller, Gustavo Amadeu Micke, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa and Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2355

      A capillary zone electrophoresis method able to quantify citric, malic and aspartic acid in roots and leaves of Brachiaria brizantha, in order to study aluminum tolerance, was optimized through a chemometric approach. The optimized methodology demonstrated to be suitable to separate acetic, citric, formic, lactic, malic, oxalic, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric and aspartic acid simultaneously using phthalic acid; tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide as electrolyte (pH 4.3). Each electrophoresis run took about 4 min and showed a high repeatability.

    3. Simultaneous Extraction and Separation of Flavonols and Flavones from Chamaecyparis obtusa by Multi-phase Extraction using an Ionic Liquid-modified Microsphere Polymer (pages 576–581)

      Minglei Tian, Wentao Bi and Kyung Ho Row

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2357

      A novel method (multi-phase extraction) was developed and it was used to simultaneously extract and separate the target compound from natural plant. New functionalized ionic liquid-immobilized microsphere polymer was investigated as the sorbent. The results proved that this method had a low deviation error, required a small amount of solvent and was highly selective and reproducible.

    4. Determination of Macrocyclic Ellagitannin Oenothein B in Plant Materials by HPLC-DAD-MS: Method Development and Validation (pages 582–587)

      Sebastian Granica, Agnieszka Bazylko and Anna K. Kiss

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2358

      In our paper the first HPLC method for quantification of oenothein B in plant material has been developed and validated. The sample application of developed method for plant material has been shown. The presence of oenothein B in Circeae lutetiana L. extract has been confirmed for the first time..

    5. Conversion of Phenolic Constituents in Aqueous Hamamelis virginiana Leaf Extracts During Fermentation (pages 588–597)

      Sarina M. Duckstein, Peter Lorenz and Florian C. Stintzing

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2359

      Aqueous Hamamelis leaf extracts were monitored during fermentation and maturation in order to obtain an insight into the bioconversion of tannins and other phenolics. By successive depside bond cleavage, the gallotannins were completely transformed into gallic acid after 1 month. During 6 months, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were firstly converted to their corresponding aglycones, which in turn were cleaved yielding phloroglucinol, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2 (4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol. Interestingly, hydroxycinnamic acids remained almost stable in the same time range.

    6. Optimum Yields of Dibenzylbutyrolactone-type Lignans from Cynareae Fruits, During their Ripening, Germination and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Processes, Determined by On-line Chromatographic Methods (pages 598–603)

      Lilla Szokol-Borsodi, Anna Sólyomváry, Ibolya Molnár-Perl and Imre Boldizsár

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2360

      The extraction yield of the dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignan glycoside/aglycone pairs obtained from the fruits of Arctium lappa (artiin/arctigenin), Centaurea scabiosa (matairesinoside/matairesinol) and Cirsium arvense (tracheloside/trachelogenin) was optimized: as a function of the fruits ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions.

    7. Secondary Metabolites from the Phloem of Piper solmsianum (Piperaceae) in the Honeydew of Edessa meditabunda (pages 604–606)

      Clécio S. Ramos and Massuo J. Kato

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2361

      The phytochemical investigation of P. solmsianum tissues has revealed the occurrence of lignans and phenylpropanoids. However, there is no study addressed to phytochemistry of the sap content of P. solmsianum as well as for 700 species of the Piper genus. Here we give the first reported of secondary metabolites in sap from species of the Piper genus. Analysis of honeydew excreted by the sap-sucking insect Edessa meditabunda indicated that the presence of (−)-grandisin and iso-elemicin occur closely in the phloem.

    8. Quantitation of α-Galactosides in Rehmannia glutinosa by Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography–Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (pages 607–612)

      Tae Bum Kim, Seung Hyun Kim and Sang Hyun Sung

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2362

      A rapid chromatographic method to quantitate several raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in Rehmannia glutinosa was developed by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector. Quantitative analysis of RFOs showed that R. glutinosa may be a rich source of α-galacto-oligosaccharides, especially stachyose.

    9. Profiles of Steroidal Saponins from the Aerial Parts of Tribulus pentandrus, T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus and T. parvispinus by LC-ESI-MS/MS (pages 613–621)

      Arafa I. Hamed, Bogdan Janda, Usama A. Mahalel, Anna Stochmal and Wieslaw Oleszek

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2363

      Tribulus is a well known pharmaceutical herb that has been used for a long time in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine. HPLC–ESI-MS/MS allowed us to identify the key compounds without preparative isolation of the components from the crude extract of Tribulus species. The results exhibited that the native steroidal glycosides profiles of both T. pentandrus and T. megistopterus subsp. pterocarpus were very close to each other, but a remarkable differences were found in T. parvispinus pattern.

    10. Optimisation of an Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Followed by RP-HPLC Separation for the Simultaneous Determination of Oleanolic Acid, Ursolic Acid and Oridonin Content in Rabdosia rubescens (pages 627–636)

      Yu-Chiao Yang, Ming-Chi Wei and Ting-Chia Huang

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2365

      An optimal UAE method and an efficient HPLC technique have been developed and optimized for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of oridonin, OA and UA in the medicinal plant Rabdosia rubescens. These results indicated that the proposed UAE–HPLC method is a rapid, convenient and appropriate method. Furthermore, there are significant variations in the contents of oridonin, OA and UA within different samples, which may provide a theoretical basis for the medical utilization of Rabdosia rubescens in the future.

    11. Evaluation of Anti-oxidant Activity and Identification of Major Polyphenolics of the Invasive Weed Oxalis pes-caprae (pages 642–646)

      Ilknur Güçlütürk, Anastasia Detsi, Erika Krisztina Weiss, Efstathia Ioannou, Vassilios Roussis and Panagiotis Kefalas

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2367

      Aerial parts of the invasive weed Oxalis pes-caprae were extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and their major components were analysed by LC-DAD-MS. The extracts were found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites and exhibited significant antioxidant activity. Aurone glucoside cernuoside was isolated from the methanolic extract of the yellow flowers of O. pes-caprae and its structure was elucidated unambiguously by one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    12. An Improved CTAB–Ammonium Acetate Method for Total RNA Isolation from Cotton (pages 647–650)

      Lu Zhao, Qi Ding, Jun Zeng, Fu-Rong Wang, Jun Zhang, Shou-Jin Fan and Xin-Qiang He

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2368

      A rapid and simple cetyltrimethylamonium bromide (CTAB)-ammonium acetate protocol was reported for RNA extraction from cotton tissues. The procedure took only 1.5 h and produced total RNA with satisfactory yield and high purity from different tissues. The isolated RNA was usable for downstream reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR analysis.

    13. Three New Natural Compounds from the Root Bark Essential Oil from Xylopia aethiopica (pages 651–656)

      Thierry Acafou Yapi, Jean Brice Boti, Barthelemy Koffi Attioua, Antoine Coffy Ahibo, Ange Bighelli, Joseph Casanova and Félix Tomi

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2369

      The composition of Xylopia aethiopica root bark oil was investigated by a combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It differed drastically from those of leaf and fruit oils of the same plant. The structure of two new compounds, 4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylcyclohexene and endo-5-methoxy-3-patchoulene was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Three other components were reported for the first time as natural compounds.

    14. Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography–High-definition Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Constituents in the Root of Radix Stemonae and those Absorbed in Blood after Oral Administration of the Extract of the Crude Drug (pages 657–667)

      Wei Dong, Ping Wang, Xiangcai Meng, Hui Sun, Aihua Zhang, Weiming Wang, Hui Dong and Xijun Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2370

      Mass spectrum with MSE function of croomine, neotuberostemonine, and stemoninine in the UPLC-HDMS chromatogram of Radix Stemonae.

    15. Structural Characterisation and Identification of Phenylethanoid Glycosides from Cistanches deserticola Y.C. Ma by UHPLC/ESI–QTOF–MS/MS (pages 668–676)

      Lifeng Han, Mavis Boakye-Yiadom, Erwei Liu, Yi Zhang, Wei Li, Xinbo Song, Fenghua Fu and Xiumei Gao

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2371

      Seven standard compounds were used for the investigation of fragmentation pattern of PhGs using UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS method. Based on this, a rapid and accurate UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was established for the identification of PhGs in crude extract of C. deserticola and a total of thirteen PhGs in the crude extract of C. deserticola were identified or tentatively identified. This method could therefore be used for rapid prediction of the chemical constituents and qualities of this plant.

    16. Quantitative Analysis of Five Kudinosides in the Large-leaved Kudingcha and Related Species from the Genus Ilex by UPLC–ELSD (pages 677–683)

      Li Li, Yong Peng, Guizhi Ma, Congfen He, Yuxiong Feng, Qifang Lei and Peigen Xiao

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2372

      Kudingcha as a functional tea has been used in China for a long history. The established UPLC-ELSD method was firstly established and applied to the quality control of the large-leaved Kuidngcha. The differences among the correct species and the confusions were elucidated. In the same time, the quality of different tea products was evaluated and compared.

    17. One-step Preparative Separation of Two Polyhydroxystilbenes from Rheum likiangense Sam. by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography (pages 684–688)

      Xiaoyan Wang, Honglun Wang, Chenxu Ding and Yourui Suo

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2373

      An optimized method for large-scale preparative separation of polyhydroxystilbenes (PHS) from the rhizome of Rheum likiangense Sam. by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been established in this paper. Eighty-four milligrams of desoxyrhaponticin with 98.2% purity and 148 mg of rhaponticin with 95.3% purity were respectively yielded from 1.5 g of crude extract in the single one-step HSCCC operation within 440 min using a solvent system consisting of methanol:n-butanol:chloroform:water (2:0.5:3:3, v/v/v/v).

    18. Quantitative NMR: An Applicable Method for Quantitative Analysis of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Herbal Products (pages 689–696)

      Siddheshwar K. Chauthe, Ram Jee Sharma, Farrukh Aqil, Ramesh C. Gupta and Inder Pal Singh

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2375

      Indian medicinal plants Eugenia jambolana, Withania somnifera and Aegle marmelos extracts and their herbal products were standardized by quantifying their marker constituents employing qNMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins (delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, petunidin-3,5-diglucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside) were quantified in crude extract, XAD enriched extract and sephadex enriched extract of E. jambolana. Imperatorin was quantified in fruits of Aegle marmelos and total withanolide content was determined in Withania somnifera leaf extract. The results of quantitative analysis obtained by qNMR were in accordance with those obtained by HPLC.