Phytochemical Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 24 Issue 5

Special Issue: PCA focus issue on ‘Analysis of polyphenols’ (ICP2012)

September/October 2013

Volume 24, Issue 5

Pages 423–512

Issue edited by: Victor de Freitas, Gilles Comte, Celestino Santos-Buelga

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Special Issue Articles
    4. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Guest Editorial – XXVIth International Conference on Polyphenols (ICP 2012) (page 423)

      Victor de Freitas, Gilles Comte and Celestino Santos-Buelga

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2469

  2. Special Issue Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Special Issue Articles
    4. Research Articles
    1. Stability and Oxidation Products of Hydrolysable Tannins in Basic Conditions Detected by HPLC/DAD–ESI/QTOF/MS (pages 424–435)

      Anu Tuominen and Terhi Sundman

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2456

      The stability of hydrolysable tannins in basic conditions was investigated using HPLC/DAD. Hydrolysable tannins degraded fast in these conditions and half-lives were mostly less than 10 min at pH 10. Three types of degradation products were detected and identified with high-resolution HPLC/DAD–ESI/QTOF/MS: hydrolysis products, deprotonated species and other oxidatively transformed structures. The use of a base-resistant HPLC column enabled injections without the sample pre-treatment and thus detection of short-lived products.

    2. One- and Two-dimensional High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography as an Alternative Analytical Tool for Investigating Polyphenol–Protein Interactions (pages 436–445)

      Kathrin Tscherch, Julia Biller, Mareen Lehmann, Maria Trusch and Sascha Rohn

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2459

      In this study, one- and two-dimensional HPTLC supported by MALDI/TOF/MS detection was successfully applied for the investigation of tryptically digested protein–phenol derivatives. Moreover, this technique enabled investigating the influence of selected phenolic compounds on the proteins and corresponding peptides in terms of quantity, polarity, UV activity, radical-scavenging activity and mass. This approach enables the identification of binding sites inside the protein chain and contributes to understanding the mechanism of polyphenol–protein interactions in vitro and in vivo.

    3. Anthocyanin Phytochemical Profiles and Anti-oxidant Activities of Vitis candicans and Vitis doaniana (pages 446–452)

      Alexander Acevedo De la Cruz, Ghislaine Hilbert, Virginie Mengin, Céline Rivière, Nathalie Ollat, Caroline Vitrac, Louis Bordenave, Stéphane Decroocq, Jean-Claude Delaunay, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Jean-Pierre Monti, Eric Gomès and Tristan Richard

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2447

      Two American Vitis species, V. candicans and V. doaniana, were evaluated and compared for their anti-oxidant properties and anthocyanin profile. HPLC–MS and HPLC–NMR were used to identify the individual anthocyanins. The structures of 30 anthocyanins were identified by combining both techniques. In particular, new cis-p-coumaroyl isomers of peonidin and cyanidin were identified. Extract activities were evaluated by DPPH and ORAC methods. Both V. candicans and V. doaniana exerted anti-oxidant activities.

    4. Grape Colour Phenotyping: Development of a Method Based on the Reflectance Spectrum (pages 453–459)

      Laura Rustioni, Roberto Basilico, Simone Fiori, Alessandra Leoni, David Maghradze and Osvaldo Failla

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2434

      A phenotyping method was developed based on reflectance spectra from 120 grape varieties. The cluster analysis, together with the discriminant analysis, produced reliable classifications. The reflectance spectra of the surface of whole berries were also compared with the absorption properties of single skin extracts. In this way, a cultivar-independent index was obtained in order to evaluate the pigment content in a non-destructive way.

    5. Characterisation of the Polyphenol Content in the Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) Exocarp for the Calibration of a Fruit-sorting Optical Sensor (pages 460–466)

      Patrizia Pinelli, Annalisa Romani, Elisa Fierini, Damiano Remorini and Giovanni Agati

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2443

      The polyphenolic content of kiwifruit exocarps was evaluated by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS analysis of hydroalcoholic extracts. The results were used to calibrate a fluorescence-based optical sensor able to provide an index (FLAV) of flavonols. A good linear regression (R2 = 0.88) was found between the non-destructive FLAV index and the actual flavonol fruit skin concentration. The sensor is proposed as rapid sorting tool of healthy anti-oxidant flavonol compounds in kiwifruits.

    6. Phenolic Distribution in Liquid Preparations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L. (pages 467–475)

      Francesca Ieri, Sara Martini, Marzia Innocenti and Nadia Mulinacci

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2462

      Liquid preparations (tinctures and buds extracts) of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L. foliar tissues were analysed by HPLC/DAD–MS to define their phytochemical profiles in terms of phenolic compounds. The cinnamoyl derivatives could be used as fingerprint at 330 nm to distinguish these two species together with the arbutin derivatives at 280 nm, typical markers of only lingonberry leaves. The hydroxycinnamic acids are the main class in bilberry samples; these liquid formsproved to be stable up to 6 months.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Special Issue Articles
    4. Research Articles
    1. 1H-NMR Fingerprinting of Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flavonol Glycosides (pages 476–483)

      Kaisu R. Riihinen, Velitchka V. Mihaleva, Tanja Gödecke, Pasi Soininen, Reino Laatikainen, Jacques M. Vervoort, David C. Lankin and Guido F. Pauli

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2444

      The present study fully interpreted the complex 1H NMR fingerprints of quercetin (Q) glycosides (QGs) obtained from the berries of V. vitis-idaea and provided complete and unambiguous signal assignments. QGs were purified by long-bed gel permeation chromatography and identified by comparison to commercially available compounds using LC-MS-IT-TOF and 1D/2D NMR. Q-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and Q-3-O-β-glucuronopyranoside were revealed in the berries of V. vitis-idaea for the first time, and the structures of Q-3-O-[4″-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-α-rhamnopyranoside, Q-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, Q-3-O-β-galactopyranoside, Q-3-O-a-arabinofuranoside, Q-3-O-b-xylopyranoside, and Q-3-O-a-arabinopyranoside were unambiguously confirmed.

    2. UHPLC/PDA–ESI/MS Analysis of the Main Berry and Leaf Flavonol Glycosides from Different Carpathian Hippophaë rhamnoides L. Varieties (pages 484–492)

      Raluca Maria Pop, Carmen Socaciu, Adela Pintea, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Mark Gerardus Sanders, Harry Gruppen and Jean-Paul Vincken

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2460

      The composition of main flavonols of Romanian sea buckthorn berry and leaf varieties was compared to identify the specific biomarkers that contribute to sample differentiation among varieties. Berries and leaves contained mainly isorhamnetin (I) -glycosides in different ratios. While I 3-neohespiridoside, I 3-glucoside, I 3-rhamnosylglucoside, I 3-sophoroside-7-rhamnoside and free isorhamnetin were predominant for berries, I 3-rhamnosylglucoside, I 3-neohespiridoside, I 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-pentoside, kaempherol 3-rutinoside and quercetin 3-glucoside were predominant in leaves. Using principal component analysis, the flavonol biomarkers were identified.

    3. Characterisation of Diarylheptanoid- and Flavonoid-type Phenolics in Corylus avellana L. Leaves and Bark by HPLC/DAD–ESI/MS (pages 493–503)

      Eszter Riethmüller, Ágnes Alberti, Gergő Tóth, Szabolcs Béni, Francesco Ortolano and Ágnes Kéry

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2452

      The leaves of Corylus avellana L. have been used in folk medicine for various diseases but phytochemical exploration of their constituents is still incomplete. A novel online chromatographic method was improved for the separation and characterisation of phenoloids, including diarylheptanoids, in C. avellana leaves and bark. In the methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts, six different flavonoid components and eight diarylheptanoid-type molecules were identified. As far as we know this is the first study where the presence of diarylheptanoids in C. avellana is reported.

    4. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC–TOF/IT/MS in Buds and Open Flowers of ‘Chemlali’ Olive Cultivar (pages 504–512)

      Amani Taamalli, Leila Abaza, David Arráez Román, Antonio Segura Carretero, Alberto Fernández Gutiérrez, Mokhtar Zarrouk and Nabil Ben Youssef

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2450

      Secoiridoids, flavonoids, simple phenols, cinnamic acid derivatives and lignans were tentatively identified in ‘Chemlali’ olive buds and open flowers extracts. Qualitatively, no significant difference was observed between both extracts. However, quantitatively the secoiridoids presented higher percentage of total phenols in open flowers (41.7%) than in buds flower (30.5%) in contrast to flavonoids which decreased slightly from 38.1 to 26.7%. Lignans presented the lowest percentage in both extracts with an increase during the development of the flower bud to open flower.