Phytochemical Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 1

January/February 2014

Volume 25, Issue 1

Pages 1–96

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    1. A Brief Understanding of Process Optimisation in Microwave-assisted Extraction of Botanical Materials: Options and Opportunities with Chemometric Tools (pages 1–12)

      Anup Kumar Das, Vivekananda Mandal and Subhash C. Mandal

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2465

      • To provide an in-depth overview of different chemometric tools for planning a process optimization and method development in MAE of botanicals.

      • This article will assist in obtaining a better insight while selecting chemometric strategies for MAE process optimization and method development.

      • Such approaches shall improve the decision-making process while selecting influential extraction parameters for industrial scale up of potent bioactives.

    2. Bioassays in Natural Product Research – Strategies and Methods in the Search for Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activity (pages 13–28)

      Adam A. Strömstedt, Jenny Felth and Lars Bohlin

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2468

      Selection and execution of relevant bioassays are critical in the various stages of the discovery process of potential drug leads and targets from natural sources. The aim of this review is to share our long-term experience in bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive compounds from different organisms in nature with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. We conclude that an increased multidisciplinary approach and a higher degree of fundamental research in development of bioassays are essential to discover complex structure–activity relationships.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    1. Multi-development–HPTLC Method for Quantitation of Hyoscyamine, Scopolamine and their Biosynthetic Precursors in Selected Solanaceae Plants Grown in Natural Conditions and as In Vitro Cultures (pages 29–35)

      Zbigniew Jaremicz, Maria Luczkiewicz, Mariusz Kisiel, Rafael Zárate, Nabil El Jaber-Vazdekis and Piotr Migas

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2455

      A TLC method for analysis of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, littorine, anisodamine and cuscohygrine in several Solanaceae plants grown in natural conditions or as in vitro cultures has been established. The best separation of all alkaloids was achieved using a multi-development (MD) technique on HPTLC silica gel plates with chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonia (75:15:10:1.8, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric detection (λ = 190 and 520 nm after derivatisation with Dragendorff's reagent) was then used for the quantitative analysis of alkaloid extracts.

    2. Characterisation and Identification of Dihydroindole-type Alkaloids From Processed Semen Strychni by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionisation Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (pages 36–44)

      Ji-Xin Tian, Yuan Tian, Lei Xu, Ji Zhang, Tao Lu and Zun-Jian Zhang

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2457

      The first liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for dihydroindole-type alkaloid identification and structural characterization in processed Semen Strychni extracts is presented. An improved strategy using mass defect filtering (MDF) in combination with multistage mass spectrometry analysis and theoretical calculations was established. Twenty-four dihydroindole-type alkaloids, including four that were previously not described, were tentatively identified. The successful application of this method indicates a potential for adaptation to other classes of natural product from other sources.

    3. Phytochemical Study of the Alkaloidal Fractions of Unonopsis duckei R. E. Fr. Guided by Electrospray Ionisation Ion-trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry (pages 45–49)

      Felipe M. A. da Silva, Afonso D. L. de Souza, Hector H. F. Koolen, Andersson Barison, Mayara E. Vendramin, Emmanoel V. Costa, Antonio G. Ferreira and Maria Lúcia B. Pinheiro

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2458

      The MS monitoring of the alkaloidal fractions of the Unonopsis duckei was fundamental to prioritise the isolation of substances not yet identified for the Unonopsis genus, dismissing known compounds and simplifying the phytochemical study. The presence of alkaloids previously reported for Annonaceae family, nornuciferine (3), anonaine (4), asimilobine (5), lysicamine (6) and liriodenine (7) was detected. The proaporphine alkaloid glaziovine (1) and the aporphine alkaloids glaucine (2a) and norglaucine (2b) are described for the first time in the Unonopsis genus.

    4. Sparse Partial-least-squares Discriminant Analysis for Different Geographical Origins of Salvia miltiorrhiza by 1H-NMR-based Metabolomics (pages 50–58)

      Miaomiao Jiang, Chunhua Wang, Yu Zhang, Yifan Feng, Yuefei Wang and Yan Zhu

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2461

      1H-NMR fingerprinting and sparse PLS-DA were used to discriminate geographical origins of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Twenty-six primary and secondary metabolites were identified, 16 of which were quantified. The sparse loading vectors indicated the candidate metabolites. Malonate and succinate could be possibly recognized as the key markers for discriminating the geographical origin of Salvia miltiorrhiza because of the regulation and influence on the root respiratory rates of plants.

    5. Quality by Design for Herbal Drugs: a Feedforward Control Strategy and an Approach to Define the Acceptable Ranges of Critical Quality Attributes (pages 59–65)

      Binjun Yan, Yao Li, Zhengtai Guo and Haibin Qu

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2463

      This work was proposed to address two key issues that hinder the quality by design implementation of herbal drugs. The first is the quality variation of herbal raw materials and the second is the difficulty in defining the acceptable ranges of critical quality attributes (CQAs). Accordingly, a feedforward control strategy and a method for defining the acceptable ranges of CQAs were proposed. A case study of the ethanol precipitation process was conducted to show the applicability of the methodology.

    6. Investigation of the Chemomarkers Correlated with Flower Colour in Different Organs of Catharanthus roseus Using NMR-based Metabolomics (pages 66–74)

      Qifang Pan, Yuntao Dai, Tri Rini Nuringtyas, Natali Rianika Mustafa, Anna Elisabeth Schulte, Robert Verpoorte and Young Hae Choi

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2464

      Leaves, stems, roots and flowers of Catharanthus roseus having different colors were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. The results showed that flower color is characterized by a special pattern of metabolites such as phenolics, organic acids and sugars in flowers. There is also correlation between flower colours and the metabolite profile of other plant organs and it is possible to predict the flower colours by detecting specific metabolites in leaves, stems or roots.

    7. Synthesis of Small Combinatorial Libraries of Natural Products: Identification and Quantification of New Long-chain 3-Methyl-2-alkanones from the Root Essential Oil of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) (pages 75–80)

      Niko S. Radulović, Marija S. Denić and Zorica Z. Stojanović-Radić

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2466

      Synthesis of a small combinatorial library enabled unequivocal and unobstructed identification of nine long-chain 3-methyl-2-alkanones (C11−C19 homologous series) as new constituents of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae) root essential oil. This new approach not only gave important and otherwise unavailable spectra data but also permitted quantitation of 3-methyl-2-alkanones in the plant material, as well as, determination of their in vitro antimicrobial activities. These minor I. helenium constituents represent secondary metabolites found for the first time in the Plant Kingdom.

    8. Vibrational Spectroscopy as a Rapid Quality Control Method for Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil) (pages 81–88)

      Sidonie Tankeu, Ilze Vermaak, Guy Kamatou and Alvaro Viljoen

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2470

      Tea tree oil (TTO) is an important commercial oil that has found several applications in the flavour, fragrance and cosmetic industries. GC–MS is traditionally used for quantitative analysis but is expensive. This study investigated the use of vibrational spectroscopy in combination with chemometric data analysis as an alternative low-cost method for the quantification of major essential oil constituents as a quality control measure. The results showed that both MIR and NIR spectroscopy are valuable quantitative quality control methods for TTO.

    9. UPLC–QTOF/MS for a Rapid Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds from Leaves of Myrtus communis L. (pages 89–96)

      Amani Taamalli, Ihsan Iswaldi, David Arráez-Román, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez and Mokhtar Zarrouk

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pca.2475

      UPLC combined with QTOF/MS is a powerful analytical method for characterizing infusions and alcoholic extracts from myrtle leaves. Several compounds such as gallic acid and galloyl derivatives, ellagic acid and derivatives, hexahydroxydiphenolyl and derivatives, flavonoids, lignans, and gallomyrtucommulones were characterized. Flavonoids, ellagic acid and its derivatives and gallic acid and its derivatives formed the major fractions. In terms of individual compounds, cornusiin C, myricetin-3-O- rhamnoside, gallomyrtucommulone C, myricetin galloyl hexoside, and myricetin galactoside presented the highest percentages in both extracts.