Although some of the self-report scales for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are available in Chinese and are currently in use in China, cultural limitations exist. An indigenous Chinese PTSD self-rating scale—the Chinese PTSD Inventory (CPI)—has been developed. The item generation of the CPI was based on interviews of Sichuan earthquake victims. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of 313 earthquake victims, acquiring five factors with 27 items: Intrusion, Avoidance, Hyperarousal, Dysphoria, and Somatization. Another sample of 227 debris-flow victims was administered the 27-item CPI. It demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and the result of confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the five-factor model.