Abnormal ventral induction may result in disorders of formation, cleavage, and midline development of prosencephalic structures. Holoprosencephaly is a developmental field defect of impaired cleavage of prosencephalon. The most widely accepted classification of holoprosencephaly recognizes three major varieties: the alobar, semilobar and lobar types, according to the severity of the malformation. The brain malformations, characterized by the fusion of the cerebral hemisphere along the midline are commonly associated with facial anomalies.
Corpus callosum agenesis and septo-optic dysplasia are disorders of prosencephalic midline development, and usually have less severe presentations but still, affected subjects may suffer from neurodevelopmental retardation, and/or endocrinologic and visual disorders.
In this article we report an up-to-date of pathogenesis, prenatal sonographic findings, differential diagnosis and prognosis of the aforementioned anomalies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.