The safety of obstetrical ultrasound: a review
Article first published online: 6 NOV 2009
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume 29, Issue 13, pages 1204–1212, December 2009
How to Cite
Houston, L. E., Odibo, A. O. and Macones, G. A. (2009), The safety of obstetrical ultrasound: a review. Prenat. Diagn., 29: 1204–1212. doi: 10.1002/pd.2392
- Issue published online: 1 DEC 2009
- Article first published online: 6 NOV 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 3 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Received: 18 FEB 2009
- obstetrical ultrasound safety;
- thermal effects;
- mechanical effects;
- output display standard
Ultrasound is a commonly employed imaging modality in obstetrics and is generally regarded as safe to the fetus. Current ultrasound technology, however, has significantly higher output potential than older machines used in most clinical studies, and the safety profile for the increasing use of Doppler, 3-dimensional (D) and 4-D ultrasound with modern machines is unknown. This article reviews the current status of ultrasound safety within obstetrics, including proposed mechanisms of harm, existing scientific and clinical evidence regarding those mechanisms, and considerations of safety for the clinical user. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.