Embryonic aneuploidies may be responsible for pregnancy failure in many IVF patients. In recent years, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for multiple chromosomes has been used to document a high frequency of chromosomal errors and aneuploidy in human preimplantation embryos and, after embryo biopsy, to select embryos that are more likely to implant. Such studies suggest that women with recurrent miscarriage and advanced maternal age may benefit most from preimplantation genetic diagnosis with aneuploidy screening (PGD-AS). The success of PGD-AS is likely to be enhanced by new technologies, such as comparative genomic hybridisation, which enable full karyotyping of single cells. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.