Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a relatively common finding in children with Down syndrome but has also been diagnosed prenatally, most often presenting with fetal hepatosplenomegaly. We report a case of TAM with hepatosplenomegaly found on ultrasound and associated with an increased amniotic fluid Δ OD 450 value. TAM is most commonly transient but can be associated with fatality and therefore should be considered in the differential diagnosis when fetal hepatosplenomegaly is found on ultrasound. Amniocentesis with chromosomal analysis and a Δ OD 450 may aid in diagnosing TAM and predicting the severity of the liver involvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.