Characteristics and outcome of primary congenital left ventricular aneurysm and diverticulum: analysis of cases from the literature


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  • Conflicts of interest: None declared



Congenital left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) and diverticulum (LVD) are rare cardiac anomalies. We aimed to analyse the characteristics and long-term outcome of prenatal diagnosed patients with LVA/LVD.


We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify and analyse patients diagnosed prenatally with LVA/LVD.


Twenty-six fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of LVA (50% male subjects) and 16 with LVD (38% male subjects) were identified. Fetal age at diagnosis was 23.8 ± 6.1 weeks. Mean maternal age was 30.6 ± 6.1 years old. LVA was larger (375 ± 237 vs 60 ± 71 mm2; p = 0.002), and LVA/LVD was frequently observed in an apical location (62%). Associated cardiac/extracardiac defects were reported in 13/42 (31%). Symptomatic patients presented with arrhythmias (LVA 16% vs LVD 0%), hydrops fetalis (LVA 27% vs LVD 18.8%), or rupture (LVA 4% vs LVD 38%; p = 0.02). Size changes of the LVA/LVD during pregnancy were reported in 17%. Fetal death occurred in nine cases (21.4%); termination of pregnancy was performed in six cases (14.3%). All other babies were delivered at term. During follow-up (mean 29.1 ± 38.2 months), the rate of adverse events was significantly increased in patients with LVA (40 vs 0%; p = 0.04)


The rate of fetal complications including fetal death is high. Long-term outcome among the survivors is significantly worse in patients with LVA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.