Funding sources: None
Differential insertion of the atrioventricular valves: measurement protocol to detect various congenital heart defects
Article first published online: 1 JUN 2014
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume 34, Issue 10, pages 935–939, October 2014
How to Cite
2014), Differential insertion of the atrioventricular valves: measurement protocol to detect various congenital heart defects, Prenat Diagn, 34: 935–939. DOI: 10.1002/pd.4395, , , , , , and (
Conflicts of interest: None declared
- Issue published online: 2 OCT 2014
- Article first published online: 1 JUN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 24 APR 2014 12:47AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 APR 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 30 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 22 NOV 2013
The objectives of this study were to develop reference values for the distance between the atrioventricular valves, called differential insertion of the atrioventricular valves (DIAVV), in normal fetuses using four-dimensional ultrasound with spatio-temporal image correlation and to explore if DIAVV measurement can differentiate between normal hearts and hearts with cardiac defects.
The DIAVV was analysed longitudinally following a measurement protocol in 74 fetuses between 15 and 36 weeks gestational age. The DIAVV was measured in an apical four-chamber view of the heart in end-diastole. Furthermore, the DIAVV was measured in 70 fetuses with cardiac defects.
In total, 337 normal and 70 abnormal spatio-temporal image correlation volumes were examined. Longitudinal regression analysis revealed a positive relationship of the DIAVV with gestational age and fetal biometry (p < 0.0001). The DIAVV of fetuses with double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, atrioventricular septal defects, Ebstein and tetralogy of Fallot all differed from normal fetuses (p < 0.05).
Measurement of the DIAVV is a promising tool; however, a well-defined measurement protocol should be followed to accomplish the correct plane and exact moment in the cardiac cycle. This study presents new nomograms following this measurement protocol and reports an abnormal DIAVV in a wide spectrum of congenital heart disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.