No conflict of interest was declared.
Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006
Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Volume 15, Issue 8, pages 537–545, August 2006
How to Cite
Lee, E., Maneno, M. K., Smith, L., Weiss, S. R., Zuckerman, I. H., Wutoh, A. K. and Xue, Z. (2006), National patterns of medication use during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidem. Drug Safe., 15: 537–545. doi: 10.1002/pds.1241
Euni Lee is an Assistant Professor, Sheila R. Weiss, Ilene H. Zuckerman are Associate Professors, Mary K. Maneno is a Graduate student, Leah Smith is a Pharmacy Practice Resident, Anthony K. Wutoh is an Associate Professor/Co-program Director, Zhenyi Xue is a Biostatistician.
- Issue published online: 2 AUG 2006
- Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 MAR 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 24 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Received: 11 OCT 2005
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Grant Number: 1 R24 HS11673
- Howard University
- medication use;
- FDA pregnancy risk category;
- national surveys
To describe patterns of medication use during pregnancy in ambulatory care settings according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk classification.
A cross-sectional study of two national ambulatory care surveys, sampling all office visits made by pregnant women in 1999 and 2000, was conducted. Using the FDA pregnancy risk classification, patterns of medication use and predictive factors for FDA pregnancy risk D or X (D/X) medications were evaluated.
In 1999 and 2000, about half of all pregnant visits had one or more medications. Among the total visits, FDA Class A was the majority (private = 65.7%; hospital = 79.5%; p < 0.05) followed by Class C (private = 26.5%; hospital = 36.4%; p < 0.05). Class D/X medications accounted for 6.4% and 2.9% of visits in private and hospital, respectively (p < 0.05). Medications with unknown pregnancy categories were predominant in the private setting (12.0% and 3.9%; p < 0.05). Age, insurance type, region, physician specialty, and number of medications were associated with a category D/X prescription. Among hospital visits, those from the West region and with private insurance were more likely to receive category D/X prescriptions. Number of medications was strongly associated with high-risk drugs in both settings.
This study shows considerable medication use among pregnant women. The prevalence of visits with FDA pregnancy category D/X drugs was moderate, but still indicates exposure to high-risk medications. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.