No conflict of interest was declared.
Article first published online: 8 FEB 2007
This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 560–570, May 2007
How to Cite
Paulose-Ram, R., Safran, M. A., Jonas, B. S., Gu, Q. and Orwig, D. (2007), Trends in psychotropic medication use among U.S. adults. Pharmacoepidem. Drug Safe., 16: 560–570. doi: 10.1002/pds.1367
This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
- Issue published online: 1 MAY 2007
- Article first published online: 8 FEB 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 8 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Received: 6 APR 2006
- drug utilization;
To examine trends and prevalence of prescription psychotropic medication use among noninstitutionalized US adults.
Prescription medication data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1988–1994; n = 20 050) and the 1999–2002 NHANES (n = 12 060), two nationally representative cross-sectional health examination surveys, were examined for persons aged ≥17 years.
The age-adjusted prevalence of psychotropic medication use increased from 6.1% in 1988–1994 to 11.1% in 1999–2002 (p < 0.001). This was due to more than a three-fold increase in antidepressant use (2.5%, 1988–1994 vs. 8.1%, 1999–2002 (p < 0.001)). Significant increases between time periods for antidepressant use were seen for all age, gender, and race-ethnic groups although increases were less pronounced for males than females and non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans than non-Hispanic whites. Prevalence of use remained relatively constant from 1988–1994 to 1999–2002 for anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic (ASH) medications (3.5–3.8%), antipsychotics (0.8–1.0%), and antimanic agents (0.3–0.4%). The age-adjusted prevalence of multiple psychotropic medication use increased from 1.2% in 1988–1994 to 3.1% in 1999–2002 (p < 0.001).
Psychotropic medication use among US adults increased since 1988–1994, specifically of antidepressants. Increases varied by gender and race-ethnicity indicating under-utilization for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans compared to non-Hispanic whites for both males and females. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.