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Keywords:

  • acetaminophen;
  • overdose;
  • military health

ABSTRACT

Purpose

We report the annual trend, distribution, and determinants of acetaminophen overdose using data from the Military Health System. We also assess the proportion of individuals with an acetaminophen overdose who received a prescription for any acetaminophen-containing medication prior to their event.

Methods

Diagnostic International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) codes from inpatient medical encounters were used to identify patients with acetaminophen overdose. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for associations between selected socio-demographic characteristics and acetaminophen overdose. Pharmacy records for individuals with an acetaminophen overdose were obtained to evaluate the proportion who received a prescription for any acetaminophen-containing medication prior to their overdose.

Results

Annual age-adjusted and sex-adjusted prevalence of acetaminophen overdose increased by 38.5% from 2004 to 2008. Acetaminophen overdose was significantly more common in female subjects than in male subjects (aPR = 3.24, 95%CI = 2.97–3.55). Individuals aged 15–17 and 18–24 also were significantly more likely to have an overdose compared with those aged 45–64 (aPR = 6.06, 95%CI = 5.25–7.00 and aPR = 4.58, 95%CI = 4.01–5.23, respectively). Among active duty service members, acetaminophen overdose was six times more common in junior enlisted service members than in officers (aPR = 6.06, 95%CI = 3.90–9.40). The proportion of individuals with an inpatient overdose who had any prescription for an acetaminophen-containing medication in the 365, 30, and 7 days before the overdose was 53.3%, 23.7%, and 16.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

Identification of at-risk populations will aid the military in ongoing efforts to decrease medication misuse. Findings suggest a potential need for improved labeling of over-the-counter medications and medication safety education efforts for unintentional acetaminophen overdose and continued efforts to identify individuals at risk for intentional overdose. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.