Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article:

Appendix Table 1. Cohort characteristics, all study covariates. Table numbers refer to protocol.

Appendix Table 2. Opioid characteristics.

Appendix Table 3. Percentiles of propensity scores in final cohort according to study group. A ‘.’ indicates that the score is not defined.

Appendix Table 4. Distribution of days of current use during follow up for persons with at least one qualifying prescription for a study opioid.

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