• 1
    National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation: Washington, DC, 2010.
  • 2
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention. Diagnosis, and Therapy, March 7–29, 2000: highlights of the conference. South Med J 2001; 94(6): 569573.
  • 3
    Reginster JY, Burlet N. Osteoporosis: a still increasing prevalence. Bone 2006; 38(2S1): S4-S9.
  • 4
    Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 2003; 423(6937): 337342.
  • 5
    Trefis Team. UnitedHealth Group is worth $70 on health insurance enrollments growth. Forbes 2010’ (last accessed 10/01/2013).
  • 6
    Lix LM, Yogendran MS, Leslie WD, et al. Using multiple data features improved the validity of osteoporosis case ascertainment from administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61(12): 12501260.
  • 7
    Neviaser AS, Lane JM, Lenart BA, Edobor-Osula F, Lorich DG. Low-energy femoral shaft fractures associated with alendronate use. J Orthop Trauma 2008; 22(5): 346350.
  • 8
    Tennis P, Zavras A, Laskarides C, Tan H. Predictive value of ICD and CPT codes for identifying osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009; 18(S1): S153S154.
  • 9
    Narongroeknawin P, Patkar NM, Shakoory B, et al. Validation of diagnostic codes for subtrochanteric, diaphyseal, and atypical femoral fractures using administrative claims data. J Clin Densitom 2012; 15(1): 92102.
  • 10
    Patkar NM, Curtis JR, Teng GG, et al. Administrative codes combined with medical records based criteria accurately identified bacterial infections among rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Clin Epidemiol 2009; 62(3): 321327.
  • 11
    Schneeweiss S, Robicsek A, Scranton R, Zuckerman D, Solomon DH. Veteran's affairs hospital discharge databases coded serious bacterial infections accurately. J Clin Epidemiol 2007; 60(4): 397409.
  • 12
    Thomsen RW, Schoonen WM, Farkas DK, et al. Risk for hospital contact with infection in patients with splenectomy: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151(8): 546555.
  • 13
    Chan HL, Stern RS, Arndt KA, et al. The incidence of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. A population-based study with particular reference to reactions caused by drugs among outpatients. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126(1): 4347.
  • 14
    Strom BL, Carson JL, Halpern AC, et al. Using a claims database to investigate drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Stat Med 1991; 10(4): 565576.
  • 15
    Johannes CB, Ziyadeh N, Seeger JD, et al. Incidence of allergic reactions associated with antibacterial use in a large, managed care organisation. Drug Saf 2007; 30(8): 705713.
  • 16
    Brackley ME, Penning MJ, Lesperance ML. In the absence of cancer registry data, is it sensible to assess incidence using hospital separation records? Int J Equity Health 2006; 5: 12.
  • 17
    Setoguchi S, Glynn RJ, Avorn J, Mogun H, Schneeweiss S. Statins and the risk of lung, breast, and colorectal cancer in the elderly. Circulation 2007; 115(1): 2733.
  • 18
    Dore DD, Seeger JD, Arnold Chan K. Use of a claims-based active drug safety surveillance system to assess the risk of acute pancreatitis with exenatide or sitagliptin compared to metformin or glyburide. Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25(4): 10191027.
  • 19
    Eland IA, Sturkenboom MJ, Wilson JH, Stricker BH. Incidence and mortality of acute pancreatitis between 1985 and 1995. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35(10): 11101116.
  • 20
    Floyd A, Pedersen L, Nielsen GL, Thorladcius-Ussing O, Sorensen HT. Secular trends in incidence and 30-day case fatality of acute pancreatitis in North Jutland County, Denmark: a register-based study from 1981–2000. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37(12): 14611465.
  • 21
    Feldstein A, Elmer PJ, Orwoll E, Herson M, Hillier T. Bone mineral density measurement and treatment for osteoporosis in older individuals with fractures: a gap in evidence-based practice guideline implementation. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163(18): 21652172.
  • 22
    Feldstein AC, Nichols GA, Elmer PJ, et al. Older women with fractures: patients falling through the cracks of guideline-recommended osteoporosis screening and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003; 85-A(12): 22942302.
  • 23
    Agresti A 1990 Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley: New York.
  • 24
    Sambrook P, Olver I, Goss A. Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Aust Fam Physician 2006; 35(10): 801803.
  • 25
    Ray WA. Evaluating medication effects outside of clinical trials: new-user designs. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158(9): 915920.