Graphene-based nanocomposites were generated by solution mixing of the graphene oxide filler with chlorinated polyethylene compatibilizers followed by melt mixing of the solution mixed masterbatches with high-density polyethylene. Compatibilizers with two different chlorination contents were used in different amounts in order to analyze their effect on the morphology and properties of resulting nanocomposites. Peak melting point as well as overall crystallinity was affected by graphene oxide as well as compatibilizers. Compatibilizer with higher chlorination content also interacted with polar graphene oxide surface more effectively thus leading to better filler dispersion in the composites. The addition of compatibilizers to the composites resulted in their shear and processing stability at higher angular frequencies and temperature, which otherwise was not possible for pure polymer as well as composites without compatibilizer. The mechanical performance of the nanocomposites at ambient conditions was also affected by the factors like filler delamination, plasticization of the matrix, compatibilizer content as well as their chlorination level and amorphous/semicrystalline nature. An increase of 16% in tensile modulus and 21% in strength of the composites with 5 wt% of 25% chlorinated compatibilizer at 0.5 wt% graphene oxide content was observed. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2013. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers