This study explores how the presence of nanofillers with different structural and chemical characteristics, specifically silica nanoparticles and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (GNP), alters the crystallization behavior and polymorphism of a semicrystalline polymer, such as polypropylene (PP). The main focus of this research is to investigate how silica and GNP affect the nucleation and growth of PP crystals during isothermal crystallization. The nonisothermal crystallization behavior, including crystal structures, crystallization temperature, and rate, is also determined. PP composites with nanomaterial content up to 7 wt% were produced by melt mixing and injection molding. Both silica and graphite were found to be effective nucleating agents, significantly increasing the crystallization rate during isothermal crystallization, with greater changes observed in case of GNP composites. The effect of filler type and amount on the PP polymorphism and lamella thickness was studied by X-ray diffraction and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Both silica and graphite were found to be effective nucleating agents for the less common β-phase of PP crystals even at low nanomaterial concentration. α-−crystal perfection and the recrystallization of the β-form in the α-form and/or at the transcrystalline regime were found to be responsible for the recrystallization occurring upon melting in nanocomposites at high silica or medium GNP content. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 55:672–680, 2015. © 2014 Society of Plastics Engineers