• personality development;
  • personality change;
  • latent growth curve model;
  • latent change model;
  • longitudinal methods;
  • person–environment transactions;
  • multilevel analysis


As evidenced by this special issue, research in the field of personality development is moving beyond merely describing patterns of development to more complex questions, such as the mechanisms by which personality develops or remains stable. In this article, we briefly describe three useful longitudinal structural equation models: latent growth curve models, latent change models and growth mixture models. Various underexamined and novel questions in the field of personality development are then described, each in the context of the longitudinal models. In doing so, we describe shortcomings of standard models and highlight questions and designs that could continue to move personality development research forward. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Personality Psychology