The place of temperament in personality research has been broadly discussed taking into account different understandings of both concepts - temperament and personality. Temperament may be regarded as (a) one of the elements of personality, (b) as a synonym of personality, and (c) as a phenomenon with its own specificity, not belonging to the structure of personality. Taking the latter position as a starting point, the author discusses five aspects in which temperament and personality differ: (a) the determinants of development, (6) the developmental stage in which temperament and personality are thought to be shaped, (c) the populations to which they refer, (d) the degree to which they are saturated with contents of behaviour, and (e) the role both personality and temperament play in integrating behaviour. It is concluded that the phenomena in which both concepts differ are not as strongly opposed as they are complementary.