The temperamental nature of personality


  • Norman S. Endler

    Corresponding author
    1. York University, Toronto, Canada
    • Department of Psychology, York University, 4700 Keele St., North York, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3.
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Historically, the terms ‘temperament’, ‘character’, and ‘personality’ have been used to refer to what we now mean by the term ‘personality’. Temperament refers to the raw material out of which personality evolves. Personality is a person's coherent manner of interacting with himself/herself and with the environment. The concept of temperament has been prominent with Eastern European psychologists and with developmental psychologists in North America. A number of developmental theories of temperament are discussed, and differences and similarities between temperament parameters and personality parameters are described. The genetics of personality are presented and evaluated. Mechanistic and dynamic interactions are distinguished, and the multidimensional interaction model of anxiety and relevant research are discussed. A preliminary interaction model of anxiety, stress, and coping is presented. Finally, the temperamental nature of personality is discussed, and suggestions for possible rapprochements between personality and temperament are presented.