In this paper a review of studies on temperament in Russia conducted during the last two decades is presented. Special attention has been given to the linkage between the theoretical background of modern Russian psychology and the main tendencies in the development of Russian studies on temperament. Three main trends are discussed: the traditional trend referring to the classic (Pavlovian) approach, the behavioural one based on modern conceptions in behavioural sciences, and the personological approach which postulates a holistic (‚integral’) view on human individuality. Finally, the interrelationships between the main trends in research on temperament are considered.