Item analyses and confirmatory factor analyses on the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), in a student (N = 723) and an adult (N = 891) sample, supported the theorized four factor structure of proneness to reparation, negative self-evaluation, externalizing blame and unconcern. However, two-fifth of the items did not empirically differentiate between two or more factors. Differential TOSCA scales, including only differentiating TOSCA items, were constructed and related to measures of long-term affect, depression, anxiety, and anger. Both the pattern and size of correlations of the original and the differential TOSCA scales were almost identical. Results of this study support the interpretation of TOSCA guilt as a measure of a tendency to reparation associated with guilt and TOSCA shame as a measure of a tendency to global negative self-evaluation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.