The study examined whether the magnitude of same-sex-favouring implicit gender bias depends on individual differences in self-esteem and gender identity as theorized by Greenwald et al. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to measure implicit self-esteem, gender identity, and gender attitudes. Explicit self-esteem and gender identity were measured with questionnaires. The IAT revealed a strong automatic preference for female words in 34 female undergraduates but, surprisingly, no significant gender bias in 32 males. Individual levels of this gender bias were predicted in both sexes by IAT-derived implicit measures of self-esteem and gender identity, as well as by their interaction. Neither declared gender identity nor explicit self-esteem added to the prediction. The results are discussed in terms of balanced identity design and the potential influence of method effects on the findings. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.