A. A. Jolijn Hendriks is now at the Department of Psychology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
The five-factor personality inventory: cross-cultural generalizability across 13 countries
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2003
Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
European Journal of Personality
Volume 17, Issue 5, pages 347–373, September/October 2003
How to Cite
Jolijn Hendriks, A. A., Perugini, M., Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F., Johnson, J. A., De Fruyt, F., Hřebíčková, M., Kreitler, S., Murakami, T., Bratko, D., Conner, M., Nagy, J., Rodríguez-Fornells, A. and Ruisel, I. (2003), The five-factor personality inventory: cross-cultural generalizability across 13 countries. Eur. J. Pers., 17: 347–373. doi: 10.1002/per.491
- Issue published online: 22 OCT 2003
- Article first published online: 24 SEP 2003
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 JAN 2003
- Manuscript Received: 7 AUG 2002
- Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. Grant Numbers: 406/99/1155, 406/01/1507
- National Scientific Research Projects of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Grant Number: OTKA T 018466
- Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Grant Number: 575-68-068
- VEGA. Grant Number: 2/7140/20
In the present study, we investigated the structural invariance of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) across a variety of cultures. Self-report data sets from ten European and three non-European countries were available, representing the Germanic (Belgium, England, Germany, the Netherlands, USA), Romance (Italy, Spain), and Slavic branches (Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia) of the Indo-European languages, as well as the Semito-Hamitic (Israel) and Altaic (Hungary, Japan) language families. Each data set was subjected to principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation and orthogonal Procrustes rotation to optimal agreement with (i) the Dutch normative structure and (ii) an American large-sample structure. Three criteria (scree test, internal consistency reliabilities of the varimax-rotated components, and parallel analysis) were used to establish the number of factors to be retained for rotation. Clear five-factor structures were found in all samples except in the smallest one (USA, N = 97). Internal consistency reliabilities of the five components were generally good and high congruence was found between each sample structure and both reference structures. More than 80% of the items were equally stable within each country. Based on the results, an international FFPI reference structure is proposed. This reference structure can facilitate standardized communications about Big Five scores across research programmes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.