Covert and overt expressions of self-criticism and perfectionism and their relation to depression



Multiple measures of both the covert and overt expressions of self-criticism and perfectionism have been developed. The present study examined the relation between a measure of overt self-criticism and several measures of covert self-criticism and perfectionism, using 59 male and 152 female university students. The study also examined the relation between these constructs and depression. The results replicated previous reports that two factors, self-critical perfectionism and high personal standards, underlie existing measures of covert expressions. Self-critical perfectionism and overt self-criticism were shown to be independent predictors of depression, suggesting the importance of assessing the overt interpersonal, as well as the covert, manifestations of self-criticism. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.