Humour styles, personality, and well-being among Lebanese university students



This research examined the structure and correlates of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in Lebanese university students. Four humour factors were found, as in the original Canadian samples: Affiliative, Self-Enhancing, Aggressive, and Self-Defeating humour. Scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and inter-correlations among the scales were low. Lebanese participants scored lower than Canadians on Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humour and lower than Belgians on Affiliative and Aggressive humour. As in Canadian and Belgian samples, males reported significantly more use of Aggressive and Self-Defeating humour than did females. Humour styles correlated differentially, and generally as predicted, with horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism, attachment styles, perceived health, and psychological well-being. Overall, the findings support the cross-cultural stability of the HSQ as well as the differential relationship of these humour styles with culture-related personality traits and psychological well-being. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.