This article was published online on 27 April 2007. An error was subsequently identified and corrected by an Erratum notice that was published online only on 16 July 2007; DOI: 10.1002/per.656. This printed version incorporates the amendments identified by the Erratum notice.
The evolutionary genetics of personality†
Article first published online: 27 APR 2007
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
European Journal of Personality
Special Issue: European Personality Reviews 2007
Volume 21, Issue 5, pages 549–587, August 2007
How to Cite
Penke, L., Denissen, J. J. A. and Miller, G. F. (2007), The evolutionary genetics of personality. Eur. J. Pers., 21: 549–587. doi: 10.1002/per.629
- Issue published online: 8 AUG 2007
- Article first published online: 27 APR 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 22 JAN 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 JAN 2007
- Manuscript Received: 28 NOV 2006
- evolutionary psychology;
- personality differences;
- behaviour genetics;
- personality traits;
- gene-environment interactions
Genetic influences on personality differences are ubiquitous, but their nature is not well understood. A theoretical framework might help, and can be provided by evolutionary genetics. We assess three evolutionary genetic mechanisms that could explain genetic variance in personality differences: selective neutrality, mutation-selection balance, and balancing selection. Based on evolutionary genetic theory and empirical results from behaviour genetics and personality psychology, we conclude that selective neutrality is largely irrelevant, that mutation-selection balance seems best at explaining genetic variance in intelligence, and that balancing selection by environmental heterogeneity seems best at explaining genetic variance in personality traits. We propose a general model of heritable personality differences that conceptualises intelligence as fitness components and personality traits as individual reaction norms of genotypes across environments, with different fitness consequences in different environmental niches. We also discuss the place of mental health in the model. This evolutionary genetic framework highlights the role of gene-environment interactions in the study of personality, yields new insight into the person-situation-debate and the structure of personality, and has practical implications for both quantitative and molecular genetic studies of personality. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.