We identified 1839 person-descriptive adjectives from a Polish dictionary, and 10 judges classified those adjectives into five descriptive categories. Two hundred ninety adjectives (16 per cent) were classified by most judges as ‘Dispositions’ (i.e. relatively stable personality traits and abilities). We examined the structure of those 290 adjectives in self-ratings from 350 respondents. In the five-factor solution, two dimensions closely resembled Big Five Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and two others represented rotated variants of Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The fifth factor was dominated by Intellect, containing little Imagination and no Unconventionality content. A six-factor solution closely resembled the cross-language HEXACO structure (but with ‘Intellect’ rather than ‘Openness to Experience’). Analyses of 369 peer ratings revealed five- and six-factor solutions nearly identical to those of self-ratings. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.