• development of personality;
  • sex differences;
  • self-concept and self-esteem;
  • hope;
  • longitudinal


We examined the developmental trajectory of trait hope and self-esteem over 4 years and the impact of gender and perceived parental styles on these trajectories. Participants were 884 high school students. There was a general decline in hope and self-esteem over time, with females declining more rapidly than males. Girls had higher hope than boys in Grade 7, but lower hope by Grade 10. Perceived parental authoritativeness at Time 1 was related to high hope across the 4 years, whilst perceived parental authoritarianism was related to low self-esteem. We discuss the importance of perceived parental styles for adolescent well being, as well as possible explanations for changes in hope and self-esteem. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.