• personality scales and inventories;
  • Lexical studies;
  • attribution;
  • social interaction


Social-effect descriptors (like charming and annoying) register the individual's footprint on the social world. Highly prototypical social-effects terms in English were identified and factor-analysed in peer-ratings, with comparisons to the same procedures in self-ratings. Two internally replicated factors were highly interpretable. They reflect the extent to which a person is a source of pleasure to others, or alternatively is a source of pain to others. The factors are linked to hedonic principles and basic appraisal tendencies. Extension-correlation analyses indicated that variation in social-effects dimensions is represented diffusely in Big Five and six-factor measures, but corresponds more directly to variation in a Big Two personality structure that has previously been found to arise rather ubiquitously across cultures. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.