• cobicistat;
  • GS-9350;
  • pharmacokinetic enhancer;
  • booster;
  • antiretrovirals;
  • human immunodeficiency virus;
  • HIV ;
  • ritonavir

Ritonavir is commonly used as a pharmacokinetic booster for antiretroviral regimens in the management of human immunodeficiency virus infections. Limitations to ritonavir boosting include increased pill burden, adverse effects, and a wide range of clinically significant drug-drug interactions. Cobicistat is a new pharmacokinetic booster that is a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A, the main metabolizing pathway of several antiretrovirals. Cobicistat has been studied as a booster for elvitegravir, a second-generation integrase inhibitor, and protease inhibitors. Based on successful clinical trials, a new single-tablet regimen of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir has been approved for the management of treatment-naïve patients. Additional studies are underway investigating the safety and efficacy of cobicistat-boosted protease inhibitor regimens for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Cobicistat is well tolerated and may become a preferred booster for antiretroviral regimens, as it can be coformulated with several agents to create simpler regimens.