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Pharmacogenomic Testing for Neuropsychiatric Drugs: Current Status of Drug Labeling, Guidelines for Using Genetic Information, and Test Options


  • Katarzyna Drozda,

    1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
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  • Daniel J. Müller,

    1. Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic, Neurogenetics Section, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Jeffrey R. Bishop

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    • Address for correspondence: Jeffrey R. Bishop, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612; e-mail:

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  • Dr. Bishop is supported by a grant (K08MH083888) from the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Müller is supported by a Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Award, a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Michael Smith New Investigator Salary Prize for Research in Schizophrenia, an Ontario Mental Health New Investigator Fellowship, and an Early Researcher Award by the Ministry of Research and Innovation of Ontario, Canada.
  • The opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the authors. Dr. Bishop serves as an advisory board member for Physician's Choice Laboratory Services.


Advancements in pharmacogenomics have introduced an increasing number of opportunities to bring personalized medicine into clinical practice. Understanding how and when to use this technology to guide pharmacotherapy used to treat psychiatric and neurological (neuropsychiatric) conditions remains a challenge for many clinicians. Currently, guidelines exist to assist clinicians in the use of existing genetic information for drug selection and/or dosing for the tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. Additional language in the product labeling suggests that genetic information may also be useful for determining the starting and target doses, as well as drug interaction potential, for a number of other drugs. In this review, we outline the current status of pharmacogenomic testing for neuropsychiatric drugs as it pertains to information contained in drug labeling, consensus guidelines, and test panels, as well as considerations related to obtaining tests for patients.