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Synthesis and characterization of polyurethanes containing glucose for selective determination of epinephrine in the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid


Correspondence to: Aziz Paşahan, İnönü University, Faculty of Sciences and Literature, Department of Chemistry, 44280 Malatya, Turkey. E-mail:


Polyurethane (PU) films were prepared from glucose, ethylene glycol and diphenylmethane diisocyanate and used to construct a novel polymer electrode for the detection of epinephrine (EP) in the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid (AA). The NCO:OH molar ratio was kept constant at 1 and the saccharide content was varied. The PUs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses, with intrinsic viscosity and adhesive properties also being evaluated. The PUs exhibited high glass transition temperature, good thermal stability and good adhesive properties. The incorporation of saccharides into the PU structure resulted in a higher crosslinking density and a higher content of hard segments. Medium- to high-molecular-weight polymers were obtained, with inherent viscosities near or higher than 0.98–2.14 dL g−1. The solubility of the PUs was much better than that of aromatic PUs. The modified polymer electrodes were then used to determine EP in the presence of a high concentration of AA using differential pulse voltammetry. From the amperometric results for the PU electrode, it is concluded that a PU film containing 5 wt% glucose can be used as a membrane for EP detection in the presence of a large concentration of AA, because of its strong adherence to the electrode surface, easy preparation, chemical stability, selectivity and very high statistical confidence (R = 0.9994). © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry