• molecular glasses;
  • carbazole derivatives;
  • hole transporting materials;
  • ssDSSC

The synthesis of new organic hole transporting materials (HTMs) based on 3,6-disubstituted 9H-carbazole-3,6-diamine,N,N,N′,N′-tetraphenyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl) derivatives and their applications in solid state dye sensitizer solar cells (DSSCs) are described. The effect of the methoxy group localized on the para position of the diphenylamine moieties on the thermal, electronic and electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performance is discussed. In solid state DSSCs, utilization of the aforementioned HTMs in combination with the dye D102 (TiO2/D102/HTM/Au) shows a positive influence of the methoxy group on the photovoltaic conversion efficiency compared with unsubstituted diphenylamine grafted groups. A study on the concentration of the HTM is also carried out and shows an optimal concentration around 200 mg mL−1. Without further optimization, the best device gives a power conversion efficiency of 1.75% under AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm−2).