Polymer International

Cover image for Polymer International

Special Issue: Electromechanically Active Polymers

March 2010

Volume 59, Issue 3

Pages 277–429

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Reviews
    4. Research Articles
  2. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    1. Ionic polymer–metal composite mechanoelectrical transduction: review and perspectives (pages 279–289)

      Deivid Pugal, Kwangmok Jung, Alvo Aabloo and Kwang J Kim

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2759

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper gives a comprehensive overview of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) mechanoelectrical transduction and applications, and demonstrates experimental results that show promising opportunities for the design of new IPMC-based sensors.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    1. Considerations for contractile electroactive polymeric materials and actuators (pages 290–299)

      Lenore Rasmussen, Carl J Erickson, Lewis D Meixler, George Ascione, Charles A Gentile, Carl Tilson and Esta Abelev

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2763

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP)-based materials and actuators that contract. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these contractile EAPs when activated.

    2. Self-sensing ionic polymer–metal composite actuating device with patterned surface electrodes (pages 300–304)

      Karl Kruusamäe, Paola Brunetto, Salvatore Graziani, Andres Punning, Giovanna Di Pasquale and Alvo Aabloo

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2752

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper proposes a self-sensing ionic polymer–metal composite actuator. Self-sensitivity is achieved by separating the sensor and actuator parts by patterning of the surface electrodes.

    3. Electro-active polymer actuators employing sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-ethylene) as ionic membranes (pages 305–312)

      Xuan-Lun Wang, Il-Kwon Oh and Tai-Hong Cheng

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2775

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigated sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-ethylene) (SPSE) as a novel ionic membrane for electro-active polymer actuators. SPSE is a newly developed hydrocarbon ionomer synthesized through a post-sulfonation procedure.

    4. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-containing semi-interpenetrating polymer networks: a versatile concept for the design of optical or mechanical electroactive devices (pages 313–320)

      Frederic Vidal, Cédric Plesse, Pierre-Henri Aubert, Layla Beouch, François Tran-Van, Guillaume Palaprat, Pierre Verge, Paolo Yammine, Johanne Citerin, Abderrahmane Kheddar, Laurent Sauques, Claude Chevrot and Dominique Teyssié

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2772

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fine tuning of the amount of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in semi-interpenetrating polymer network architectures is a key factor for a promising concept of self-supported optical and mechanical electroactive devices.

    5. Influence of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the performance of ionic polymer conductor network composite actuators (pages 321–328)

      Sheng Liu, Wenjuan Liu, Yang Liu, Jun-Hong Lin, Xin Zhou, Michael J Janik, Ralph H Colby and Qiming Zhang

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2771

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The experimental results reveal a critical dependence of actuator performance on ionic liquids (ILs). Actuators with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and tetrafluoroborate display higher electromechanical conversion efficiency than those with other ILs investigated in this work. This is because of the formation of ion clusters.

    6. Conformational energy from the oxidation kinetics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films (pages 329–336)

      Toribio F Otero and María Caballero Romero

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2774

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The activation energy of PEDOT oxidation includes two components: the constant chemical activation energy and the conformational activation energy.

    7. Polypyrrole free-standing electrodes sense temperature or current during reaction (pages 337–342)

      Laura Valero, Joaquin Arias-Pardilla, Mascha Smit, Juan Cauich-Rodríguez and Toribio F Otero

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2750

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The electrical energy consumed for film oxidation or reduction under constant current gives a measure of the working temperature.

    8. Analytical modeling of a conducting polymer-driven catheter (pages 343–351)

      Tina Shoa, John DW Madden, Nigel R Munce and Victor Yang

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2783

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A conducting polymer-driven cat- heter for in vivo imaging applications is designed, modeled and fabricated. A comparison of the model and experimental results is carried out and an optimal design is proposed.

    9. A micropump driven by a polypyrrole-based conducting polymer soft actuator (pages 352–356)

      Yoshitaka Naka, Masaki Fuchiwaki and Kazuhiro Tanaka

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2762

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We developed a micropump driven by a conducting polymer soft actuator with opening and closing movement that can transport fluids in one direction. The energy consumption rate of our micropump is markedly lower than those of conventional micropumps.

    10. Evaluation of thrust force generated for a robotic fish propelled with polypyrrole actuators (pages 357–364)

      Scott T McGovern, Marc Abbot, Richard Emery, Gursel Alici, Van-Tan Truong, Geoffrey M Spinks and Gordon G Wallace

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2777

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polypyrrole bending-type actuators provide direct propulsion for tail-fin-operated robotic fish. The thrust force produced by the actuators was evaluated in terms of input voltage waveform and fin tail shape.

    11. New design of actuator using shear piezoelectricity of a chiral polymer, and prototype device (pages 365–370)

      Michiya Sawano, Komei Tahara, Yoshihiro Orita, Mesatoshi Nakayama and Yoshiro Tajitsu

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2758

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A prototype system was developed consisting of electrically controlled ‘fingers with small joints’ fabricated by combining poly(L-lactic acid) sheets treated with supercritical CO2, as shown in the figure.

    12. Electromechanical stability of a Mooney–Rivlin-type dielectric elastomer with nonlinear variable permittivity (pages 371–377)

      Yanju Liu, Liwu Liu, Shouhua Sun and Jinsong Leng

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2786

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our research represent the relationship between equation image and equation image when λ1 = λ2 = λ, S⩽16 and k = 1. With equation image (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) increasing, nominal electric field decreases. The shows that pre-stretch can be enforced to improve stability of dielectric elastomers.

    13. Nonlinear oscillation of a dielectric elastomer balloon (pages 378–383)

      Jian Zhu, Shengqiang Cai and Zhigang Suo

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2767

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper reports a study of the dynamic behavior of a dielectric elastomer balloon. When the frequency of excitation varies continuously, the oscillating amplitude of the balloon exhibits hysteresis.

    14. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on acrylic elastomers and plasticizers with improved actuation temperature range (pages 384–390)

      Han Zhang, Lukas Düring, Gabor Kovacs, Wei Yuan, Xiaofan Niu and Qibing Pei

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2784

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dibutoxyethoxyethyl formal-modified acrylic elastomers with interpenetrating polymer networks are examined at varied temperatures. At −40 °C with a voltage of 6.5 kV, 215% in areal expansion is demonstrated.

    15. A comparison between silicone and acrylic elastomers as dielectric materials in electroactive polymer actuators (pages 391–399)

      Silvain Michel, Xuequn Q Zhang, Michael Wissler, Christiane Löwe and Gabor Kovacs

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Elastomers, mostly silicone and acrylic, are interesting candidates as dielectric materials in electroactive polymer technology. A comparison between Dow Corning silicone and 3M acrylic elastomers was made with a view to their application in actuators.

    16. Perspectives for new dielectric elastomers with improved electromechanical actuation performance: composites versus blends (pages 400–406)

      Giuseppe Gallone, Fabia Galantini and Federico Carpi

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2765

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Results from two possible approaches, based on formulating composites or blends, for the development of new dielectric elastomers with improved actuation performance are compared and discussed. It emerges that formulating all-polymeric blends may represent a very promising route.

    17. Millimetre-scale bubble-like dielectric elastomer actuators (pages 407–414)

      Federico Carpi, Gabriele Frediani, Sergio Tarantino and Danilo De Rossi

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2744

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silicone-made hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators shaped as 6 mm bubbles showed active displacements and stresses up to 18% and 2.2 kPa, respectively, with a bandwidth of the order of 100 Hz and a resonance frequency of 250 Hz.

    18. Dielectric electro-active polymer push actuators: performance and challenges (pages 415–421)

      Mohamed Y Benslimane, Hans-Erik Kiil and Michael J Tryson

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2768

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new design of linear actuators is presented. They have the unique properties of being self-supporting and core-free. They are capable of large push forces and are fabricated based on large-scale industrial manufacturing processes and PolyPower smart metallic compliant electrode design. Actuator design and construction principles, as well as modelling are presented and discussed for push InLastor actuators.

    19. Real-time control of dielectric elastomer actuators via bioelectric and biomechanical signals (pages 422–429)

      Federico Carpi, Stanisa Raspopovic, Gabriele Frediani and Danilo De Rossi

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pi.2757

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Real-time open-loop control of dielectric elastomer actuators via electromyographic, electrocardiographic and respiratory signals for human-machine interfaces is shown to be feasible and readily achievable.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION