• photovoltaic;
  • grid integration;
  • distribution grid;
  • grid codes;
  • case studies;
  • ancillary services


The installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) systems has recently increased at a much faster rate than the development of grid codes to effectively and efficiently manage high penetrations of PV within the distribution system. In a number of countries, PV penetrations in some regions are now raising growing concerns regarding integration. Management strategies vary considerably by country—some still have an approach that PV systems should behave as passive as possible, whereas others demand an active participation in grid control. This variety of grid codes also causes challenges in learning from “best practice.” This paper provides a review of current grid codes in some countries with high PV penetrations. In addition, the paper presents a number of country-specific case studies on different approaches for improved integration of PV systems in the distribution grid. In particular, we consider integration approaches using active and reactive power control that can reduce or defer expensive grid reinforcement while supporting higher PV penetrations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.