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Investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film formation during the multi-stage co-evaporation process

Authors


Raquel Caballero, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Módulo 12, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

E-mail: raquel.caballero@uam.es

ABSTRACT

In order to transfer the potential for the high efficiencies seen for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films from co-evaporation processes to cheaper large-scale deposition techniques, a more intricate understanding of the CIGSe growth process for high-quality material is required. Hence, the growth mechanism for chalcopyrite-type thin films when varying the Cu content during a multi-stage deposition process is studied. Break-off experiments help to understand the intermediate growth stages of the thin-film formation. The film structure and morphology are studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The different phases at the film surface are identified by Raman spectroscopy. Depth-resolved compositional analysis is carried out via glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The experimental results imply an affinity of Na for material phases with a Cu-poor composition, affirming a possible interaction of sodium with Cu vacancies mainly via In(Ga)Cu antisite defects. An efficiency of 12.7% for vacancy compound-based devices is obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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